10-K: Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)
Published on March 1, 2023
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED
OR DECEMBER 31, 2022
|TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM TO
Commission File Number:
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
|(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)||(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)|
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
|Title of each class||Trading Symbol(s)||Name of each exchange on which registered|
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes x No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes x No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Accelerated filer ☐||Non-accelerated filer ☐||Smaller reporting company||Emerging growth company|
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes
☐ No x
The aggregate market value of the common stock of the Registrant held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2022 was approximately $
As of February 24, 2023, there were
570,652,389 shares of the Registrant’s common stock outstanding.
|TABLE OF CONTENTS|
This report may contain forward-looking statements that are within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). These statements include, but are not limited to, discussions related to Apollo’s expectations regarding the performance of its business, its liquidity and capital resources and the other non-historical statements in the discussion and analysis. These forward-looking statements are based on management’s beliefs, as well as assumptions made by, and information currently available to, management. When used in this report, the words “believe,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “target” or future or conditional verbs, such as “will,” “should,” “could,” or “may,” and variations of such words or similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Although management believes that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, it can give no assurance that these expectations will prove to have been correct. These statements are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including risks relating to inflation, market conditions and interest rate fluctuations generally, the impact of COVID-19, the impact of energy market dislocation, our ability to manage our growth, our ability to operate in highly competitive environments, the performance of the funds we manage, our ability to raise new funds, the variability of our revenues, earnings and cash flow, the accuracy of management’s assumptions and estimates, our dependence on certain key personnel, our use of leverage to finance our businesses and investments by the funds we manage, Athene’s ability to maintain or improve financial strength ratings, the impact of Athene’s reinsurers failing to meet their assumed obligations, Athene’s ability to manage its business in a highly regulated industry, changes in our regulatory environment and tax status, and litigation risks, among others. We believe these factors include but are not limited to those described under the section entitled “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, as such factors may be updated from time to time in our periodic filings with the SEC, which are accessible on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. These factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read in conjunction with the other cautionary statements that are included in this report and in our other filings with the SEC. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, except as required by applicable law.
Risk Factors Summary
The following is only a summary of the principal risks that could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, which should be read in conjunction with the detailed description of these risks in “Item 1A. Risk Factors.” Some of the factors that could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows include, but are not limited to, the following:
•Difficult political, market or economic conditions;
•The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic;
•Climate change and regulatory and other efforts to reduce climate change;
•The variability in our revenues, earnings and cash flow;
•Our ability to expand into new investment strategies, markets and businesses;
•Our operations in highly competitive industries;
•Our dependence on certain key personnel;
•Harm caused by misconduct by our current and former employees, directors, or others affiliated with us;
•Our reliance on technology and information systems;
•Our dependence on management’s assumptions and estimates;
•Investments by us and the funds we manage in illiquid assets;
•Reliance by us and the funds we manage on the debt financing markets;
•Changes to and replacement of the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”);
•Our reliance on our asset management business;
•Our dependence on our retirement services business;
•Our ability to deal appropriately with conflicts of interest;
•Our ability to comply with the extensive regulation of our businesses;
•Increased regulatory focus on our businesses or legislative or regulatory changes;
•Our exposure to third-party litigation;
•Our structure involving complex provisions of tax law; and
•Our ability to react to changes in U.S. and foreign tax law.
Terms Used in This Report
In this report, references to “Apollo,” “we,” “us,” “our,” and the “Company” for periods (i) on or before December 31, 2021 refer to Apollo Asset Management, Inc. (f/k/a Apollo Global Management, Inc.) (“AAM”) and its subsidiaries unless the context requires otherwise and (ii) subsequent to December 31, 2021, refer to Apollo Global Management, Inc. (f/k/a Tango Holdings, Inc.) (“AGM”) and its subsidiaries unless the context requires otherwise. Moreover, references to “Class A shares” refers to the Class A common stock, $0.00001 par value per share, of AAM prior to the Mergers; “Class B share” refers to the Class B common stock, $0.00001 par value per share, of AAM prior to the Mergers (as defined below); “Class C share” refers to the Class C common stock, $0.00001 par value per share, of AAM prior to the Mergers; “Series A Preferred shares” refers to the 6.375% Series A preferred stock of AAM both prior to and following the Mergers; “Series B Preferred shares” refers to the 6.375% Series B preferred stock of AAM both prior to and following the Mergers; and “Preferred shares” refers to the Series A Preferred shares and the Series B Preferred shares, collectively, both prior to and following the Mergers. In addition, for periods on or before December 31, 2021, references to “AGM common stock” or “common stock” of the Company refer to Class A shares unless the context otherwise requires, and for periods subsequent to December 31, 2021 refer to shares of common stock, par value $0.00001 per share, of AGM.
The use of any defined term in this report to mean more than one entity, person, security or other item collectively is solely for convenience of reference and in no way implies that such entities, persons, securities or other items are one indistinguishable group. For example, notwithstanding the use of the defined terms “Apollo,” “we,” “us,” “our,” and the “Company” in this report to refer to AGM and its subsidiaries, each subsidiary of AGM is a standalone legal entity that is separate and distinct from AGM and any of its other subsidiaries. Any AGM entity (including any Athene entity) referenced herein is responsible for its own financial, contractual and legal obligations.
|Term or Acronym||Definition|
|AAA||Apollo Aligned Alternatives, L.P., together with its parallel funds and alternative investment vehicles|
|AADE||Athene Annuity & Life Assurance Company|
|AAIA||Athene Annuity and Life Company|
|AARe||Athene Annuity Re Ltd., a Bermuda reinsurance subsidiary|
|Accord+||Apollo Accord+ Fund, L.P., together with its parallel funds and alternative investment vehicles|
|Accord I||Apollo Accord Master Fund, L.P., together with its feeder funds|
|Accord II||Apollo Accord Master Fund II, L.P., together with its feeder funds|
|Accord III||Apollo Accord Master Fund III, L.P., together with its feeder funds|
|Accord III B||Apollo Accord Master Fund III B, L.P., together with its feeder funds|
|Accord IV||Apollo Accord Fund IV, L.P., together with its parallel funds and alternative investment vehicles|
|Accord V||Apollo Accord Fund V, L.P., together with its parallel funds and alternative investment vehicles|
|ACRA||Athene Co-Invest Reinsurance Affiliate Holding Ltd., together with its subsidiaries|
|ADIP||Apollo/Athene Dedicated Investment Program (A), L.P., together with its parallel funds, a series of funds managed by Apollo including third-party capital that invests alongside Athene in certain investments|
|ADS||Apollo Debt Solutions BDC, a non-traded business development company managed by Apollo|
|AIOF I||Apollo Infra Equity US Fund, L.P., Apollo Infra Equity Feeder Fund (TE), L.P., Apollo Infra Equity International Fund, L.P., and Apollo Infra Equity Feeder Fund (Non-US), L.P. and their alternative investment vehicles|
|AIOF II||Apollo Infrastructure Opportunities Fund II, L.P., together with its parallel funds and alternative investment vehicles|
|ALRe||Athene Life Re Ltd., a Bermuda reinsurance subsidiary|
|Alternative investments||Alternative investments, including investment funds, CLO and ABS equity positions and certain other debt instruments considered to be equity-like|
|AmeriHome||AmeriHome Mortgage Company, LLC|
|AMH||Apollo Management Holdings, L.P., a Delaware limited partnership, that is an indirect subsidiary of AGM|
|ANRP I||Apollo Natural Resources Partners, L.P., together with its alternative investment vehicles|
|ANRP II||Apollo Natural Resources Partners II, L.P., together with its alternative investment vehicles|
|ANRP III||Apollo Natural Resources Partners III, L.P., together with its parallel funds and alternative investment vehicles|
|AOCI||Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)|
|AOG Unit Payment||On December 31, 2021, holders of units of the Apollo Operating Group (“AOG Units”) (other than Athene and the Company) sold and transferred a portion of such AOG Units to APO Corp., a wholly-owned consolidated subsidiary of the Company, in exchange for an amount equal to $3.66 multiplied by the total number of AOG Units held by such holders immediately prior to such transaction.|
|Apollo funds, our funds and references to the funds we manage||The funds (including the parallel funds and alternative investment vehicles of such funds), partnerships, accounts, including strategic investment accounts or “SIAs,” alternative asset companies and other entities for which subsidiaries of Apollo provide investment management or advisory services.|
|Apollo Operating Group||(i) The entities through which we currently operate our asset management business and (ii) one or more entities formed for the purpose of, among other activities, holding certain of our gains or losses on our principal investments in the funds, which we refer to as our “principal investments.”|
|Apollo Origination Partners||Apollo Origination Partnership, L.P., together with its parallel funds and alternative investment vehicles|
|APSG I||Apollo Strategic Growth Capital|
|APSG II||Apollo Strategic Growth Capital II|
|ARI||Apollo Commercial Real Estate Finance, Inc.|
|Assets Under Management, or AUM||The assets of the funds, partnerships and accounts to which Apollo provides investment management, advisory, or certain other investment-related services, including, without limitation, capital that such funds, partnerships and accounts have the right to call from investors pursuant to capital commitments. Our AUM equals the sum of:
1. the NAV, plus used or available leverage and/or capital commitments, or gross assets plus capital commitments, of the yield and certain hybrid funds, partnerships and accounts for which we provide investment management or advisory services, other than certain CLOs, CDOs, and certain perpetual capital vehicles, which have a fee-generating basis other than the mark-to-market value of the underlying assets; for certain perpetual capital vehicles in yield, gross asset value plus available financing capacity;
2. the fair value of the investments of the equity and certain hybrid funds, partnerships and accounts Apollo manages or advises, plus the capital that such funds, partnerships and accounts are entitled to call from investors pursuant to capital commitments, plus portfolio level financings;
3. the gross asset value associated with the reinsurance investments of the portfolio company assets Apollo manages or advises; and
4. the fair value of any other assets that Apollo manages or advises for the funds, partnerships and accounts to which Apollo provides investment management, advisory, or certain other investment-related services, plus unused credit facilities, including capital commitments to such funds, partnerships and accounts for investments that may require pre-qualification or other conditions before investment plus any other capital commitments to such funds, partnerships and accounts available for investment that are not otherwise included in the clauses above.
Apollo’s AUM measure includes Assets Under Management for which Apollo charges either nominal or zero fees. Apollo’s AUM measure also includes assets for which Apollo does not have investment discretion, including certain assets for which Apollo earns only investment-related service fees, rather than management or advisory fees. Apollo’s definition of AUM is not based on any definition of Assets Under Management contained in its governing documents or in any management agreements of the funds Apollo manages. Apollo considers multiple factors for determining what should be included in its definition of AUM. Such factors include but are not limited to (1) Apollo’s ability to influence the investment decisions for existing and available assets; (2) Apollo’s ability to generate income from the underlying assets in the funds it manages; and (3) the AUM measures that Apollo uses internally or believe are used by other investment managers. Given the differences in the investment strategies and structures among other alternative investment managers, Apollo’s calculation of AUM may differ from the calculations employed by other investment managers and, as a result, this measure may not be directly comparable to similar measures presented by other investment managers. Apollo’s calculation also differs from the manner in which its affiliates registered with the SEC report “Regulatory Assets Under Management” on Form ADV and Form PF in various ways.
Apollo uses AUM, Gross capital deployment and Dry powder as performance measurements of its investment activities, as well as to monitor fund size in relation to professional resource and infrastructure needs.
|Athene||Athene Holding Ltd. (“Athene Holding” or “AHL” together with its subsidiaries), a leading financial services company specializing in retirement services that issues, reinsures and acquires retirement savings products designed for the increasing number of individuals and institutions seeking to fund retirement needs, and to which Apollo, through its consolidated subsidiary ISG, provides asset management and advisory services.|
|Athora||Athora Holding, Ltd. (“Athora Holding”, together with its subsidiaries), a strategic liabilities platform that acquires or reinsures blocks of insurance business in the German and broader European life insurance market (collectively, the “Athora Accounts”). Apollo, through ISGI, provides investment advisory services to Athora. Athora Non-Sub-Advised Assets includes the Athora assets which are managed by Apollo but not sub-advised by Apollo nor invested in Apollo funds or investment vehicles. Athora Sub-Advised includes assets which the Company explicitly sub-advises as well as those assets in the Athora Accounts which are invested directly in funds and investment vehicles Apollo manages.|
|Atlas||An equity investment of AAA and refers to certain subsidiaries of Atlas Securitized Products Holdings LP|
|AUM with Future Management Fee Potential||The committed uninvested capital portion of total AUM not currently earning management fees. The amount depends on the specific terms and conditions of each fund.|
|AUSA||Athene USA Corporation|
|Bermuda RBC||The risk-based capital ratio of Athene's non-US reinsurance subsidiaries by applying NAIC risk-based capital factors to the statutory financial statements on an aggregate basis. Adjustments are made to (1) exclude US subsidiaries which are included within Athene's US RBC Ratio, (2) exclude interests in other non-insurance subsidiary holding companies from its capital base and (3) limit RBC concentration charges such that when they are applied to determine target capital, the charges do not exceed 100% of the asset’s carrying value.|
|BMA||Bermuda Monetary Authority|
|BSCR||Bermuda Solvency Capital Requirement|
|Capital solutions fees and other, net||Primarily includes transaction fees earned by our capital solutions business which we refer to as Apollo Capital Solutions ("ACS") related to underwriting, structuring, arrangement and placement of debt and equity securities, and syndication for funds managed by Apollo, portfolio companies of funds managed by Apollo, and third parties. Capital solutions fees and other, net also includes advisory fees for the ongoing monitoring of portfolio operations and director's fees. These fees also include certain offsetting amounts including reductions in management fees related to a percentage of these fees recognized ("management fee offset") and other additional revenue sharing arrangements.|
|CDI||California Department of Insurance|
|CDO||Collateralized debt obligation|
|CLO||Collateralized loan obligation|
|CMBS||Commercial mortgage-backed securities|
|CML||Commercial mortgage loans|
|Contributing Partners||Partners and their related parties (other than Messrs. Leon Black, Joshua Harris and Marc Rowan, our co-founders) who indirectly beneficially owned Apollo Operating Group units.|
|Consolidated RBC||The consolidated risk-based capital ratio of Athene's non-US reinsurance and US insurance subsidiaries calculated by applying NAIC risk-based capital factors to the statutory financial statements on an aggregate basis, including interests in other non-insurance subsidiary holding companies; with an adjustment in Bermuda and non-insurance holding companies to limit RBC concentration charges such that when they are applied to determine target capital, the charges do not exceed 100% of the asset’s carrying value.|
|Cost of funds||Cost of funds includes liability costs related to cost of crediting on both deferred annuities, including, with respect to our fixed indexed annuities, option costs, and institutional costs related to institutional products, as well as other liability costs, but does not include the proportionate share of the ACRA cost of funds associated with the noncontrolling interest. Other liability costs include DAC, DSI and VOBA amortization, change in rider reserves, the cost of liabilities on products other than deferred annuities and institutional products, as well as offsets for premiums, product charges and other revenues. Costs related to business that we have exited through ceded reinsurance transactions are excluded. Cost of funds is computed as the total liability costs divided by the average net invested assets for the relevant period, presented on an annualized basis for interim periods.|
|CS||Credit Suisse AG|
|DAC||Deferred acquisition costs|
|Deferred annuities||Fixed indexed annuities, annual reset annuities, multi-year guaranteed annuities and registered index-linked annuities|
|Dry Powder||The amount of capital available for investment or reinvestment subject to the provisions of the applicable limited partnership agreements or other governing agreements of the funds, partnerships and accounts we manage. Dry powder excludes uncalled commitments which can only be called for fund fees and expenses and commitments from perpetual capital vehicles.|
|DSI||Deferred sales inducement|
|ECR||Enhanced Capital Requirement|
|EPF I||Apollo European Principal Finance Fund, L.P., together with its parallel funds and alternative investment vehicles|
|EPF II||Apollo European Principal Finance Fund II (Dollar A), L.P., together with its parallel funds and alternative investment vehicles|
|EPF III||Apollo European Principal Finance Fund III (Dollar A), L.P., together with its parallel funds and alternative investment vehicles|
|EPF IV||Apollo European Principal Finance Fund IV (Dollar A), L.P., together with its parallel funds and alternative investment vehicles|
|Equity Plan||Refers collectively to the Company’s 2019 Omnibus Equity Incentive Plan and the Company’s 2019 Omnibus Equity Incentive Plan for Estate Planning Vehicles.|
|FABN||Funding agreement backed notes|
|FABR||Funding agreement backed repurchase agreement|
|Fee-Generating AUM||Fee-Generating AUM consists of assets of the funds, partnerships and accounts to which we provide investment management, advisory, or certain other investment-related services and on which we earn management fees, monitoring fees or other investment-related fees pursuant to management or other fee agreements on a basis that varies among the Apollo funds, partnerships and accounts. Management fees are normally based on “net asset value,” “gross assets,” “adjusted par asset value,” “adjusted cost of all unrealized portfolio investments,” “capital commitments,” “adjusted assets,” “stockholders’ equity,” “invested capital” or “capital contributions,” each as defined in the applicable management agreement. Monitoring fees, also referred to as advisory fees, with respect to the structured portfolio company investments of the funds, partnerships and accounts we manage or advise, are generally based on the total value of such structured portfolio company investments, which normally includes leverage, less any portion of such total value that is already considered in Fee-Generating AUM.|
|Fee Related Earnings, or FRE||Component of Adjusted Segment Income that is used to assess the performance of the Asset Management segment. FRE is the sum of (i) management fees, (ii) advisory and transaction fees, (iii)
fee-related performance fees from indefinite term vehicles, that are measured and received on a recurring basis and not dependent on realization events of the underlying investments and (iv) other income, net, less (a) fee-related compensation, excluding equity-based compensation, (b) non-compensation expenses incurred in the normal course of business, (c) placement fees and (d) non-controlling interests in the management companies of certain funds the Company manages.
|FIA||Fixed indexed annuity, which is an insurance contract that earns interest at a crediting rate based on a specified index on a tax-deferred basis|
|Fixed annuities||FIAs together with fixed rate annuities|
|Former Managing Partners||Messrs. Leon Black, Joshua Harris and Marc Rowan collectively and, when used in reference to holdings of interests in Apollo or AP Professional Holdings, L.P. includes certain related parties of such individuals|
Gross capital deployment
The gross capital that has been invested in investments by the funds and accounts we manage during the relevant period, but excludes certain investment activities primarily related to hedging and cash management functions at the firm. Gross capital deployment is not reduced or netted down by sales or refinancings, and takes into account leverage used by the funds and accounts we manage in gaining exposure to the various investments that they have made.
|GLWB||Guaranteed lifetime withdrawal benefit|
|GMDB||Guaranteed minimum death benefit|
|Gross IRR of accord series and the European principal finance funds||The annualized return of a fund based on the actual timing of all cumulative fund cash flows before management fees, performance fees allocated to the general partner and certain other expenses. Calculations may include certain investors that do not pay fees. The terminal value is the net asset value as of the reporting date. Non-U.S. dollar denominated (“USD”) fund cash flows and residual values are converted to USD using the spot rate as of the reporting date. In addition, gross IRRs at the fund level will differ from those at the individual investor level as a result of, among other factors, timing of investor-level inflows and outflows. Gross IRR does not represent the return to any fund investor.|
|Gross IRR of a traditional private equity or hybrid value fund||The cumulative investment-related cash flows (i) for a given investment for the fund or funds which made such investment, and (ii) for a given fund, in the relevant fund itself (and not any one investor in the fund), in each case, on the basis of the actual timing of investment inflows and outflows (for unrealized investments assuming disposition on December 31, 2022 or other date specified) aggregated on a gross basis quarterly, and the return is annualized and compounded before management fees, performance fees and certain other expenses (including interest incurred by the fund itself) and measures the returns on the fund’s investments as a whole without regard to whether all of the returns would, if distributed, be payable to the fund’s investors. In addition, gross IRRs at the fund level will differ from those at the individual investor level as a result of, among other factors, timing of investor-level inflows and outflows. Gross IRR does not represent the return to any fund investor.|
|Gross IRR of infrastructure funds||The cumulative investment-related cash flows in the fund itself (and not any one investor in the fund), on the basis of the actual timing of cash inflows and outflows (for unrealized investments assuming disposition on December 31, 2022 or other date specified) starting on the date that each investment closes, and the return is annualized and compounded before management fees, performance fees, and certain other expenses (including interest incurred by the fund itself) and measures the returns on the fund’s investments as a whole without regard to whether all of the returns would, if distributed, be payable to the fund’s investors. Non-USD fund cash flows and residual values are converted to USD using the spot rate as of the reporting date. In addition, gross IRRs at the fund level will differ from those at the individual investor level as a result of, among other factors, timing of investor-level inflows and outflows. Gross IRR does not represent the return to any fund investor.|
|Gross Return or Gross ROE of a total return yield fund or the hybrid credit hedge fund||
The monthly or quarterly time-weighted return that is equal to the percentage change in the value of a fund’s portfolio, adjusted for all contributions and withdrawals (cash flows) before the effects of management fees, incentive fees allocated to the general partner, or other fees and expenses. Returns for these categories are calculated for all funds and accounts in the respective strategies. Returns over multiple periods are calculated by geometrically linking each period’s return over time. Gross return and gross ROE do not represent the return to any fund investor.
|HoldCo||Apollo Global Management, Inc. (f/k/a Tango Holdings, Inc.)|
|HVF I||Apollo Hybrid Value Fund, L.P., together with its parallel funds and alternative investment vehicles|
|HVF II||Apollo Hybrid Value Fund II, L.P., together with its parallel funds and alternative investment vehicles|
|Inflows||(i) At the individual strategy level, subscriptions, commitments, and other increases in available capital, such as acquisitions or leverage, net of inter-strategy transfers, and (ii) on an aggregate basis, the sum of inflows across the yield, hybrid and equity investing strategies.|
|IPO||Initial Public Offering|
|ISG||Apollo Insurance Solutions Group LP|
|ISGI||Refers collectively to Apollo Asset Management Europe LLP, a subsidiary of Apollo ("AAME") and Apollo Asset Management PC LLP, a wholly-owned subsidiary of AAME ("AAME PC")|
|Management Fee Offset||Under the terms of the limited partnership agreements for certain funds, the management fee payable by the funds may be subject to a reduction based on a certain percentage of such advisory and transaction fees, net of applicable broken deal costs.|
|Merger Agreement||The Agreement and Plan of Merger dated as of March 8, 2021 by and among AAM, AGM, AHL, Blue Merger Sub, Ltd., a Bermuda exempted company, and Green Merger Sub, Inc., a Delaware corporation.|
|Merger Date||January 1, 2022|
|MFIC||MidCap Financial Investment Corporation (f/k/a Apollo Investment Corporation or "AINV")|
|MidCap||MidCap FinCo Designated Activity Company|
|MMS||Minimum margin of solvency|
|NAIC||National Association of Insurance Commissioners|
|NAV||Net Asset Value|
|Net invested assets||The sum of Athene’s (a) total investments on the consolidated statements of financial condition with available-for-sale securities at amortized cost, excluding derivatives, (b) cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, (c) investments in related parties, (d) accrued investment income, (e) consolidated VIE and VOE assets, liabilities and noncontrolling interest, (f) net investment payables and receivables, (g) policy loans ceded (which offset the direct policy loans in total investments) and (h) an adjustment for the allowance for credit losses. Net invested assets includes investments supporting assumed funds withheld and modco agreements and excludes assets associated with funds withheld liabilities related to business exited through reinsurance agreements and derivative collateral (offsetting the related cash positions). Net invested assets includes our economic ownership of ACRA investments but does not include the investments associated with the noncontrolling interest.|
|Net investment earned rate||Income from Athene’s net invested assets, excluding the proportionate share of the ACRA net investment income associated with the noncontrolling interest, divided by the average net invested assets for the relevant period, presented on an annualized basis for interim periods|
|Net investment spread||Net investment spread measures Athene’s investment performance plus its strategic capital management fees less total cost of funds, presented on an annualized basis for interim periods|
|Net IRR of accord series and the European principal finance funds||The annualized return of a fund after management fees, performance fees allocated to the general partner and certain other expenses, calculated on investors that pay such fees. The terminal value is the net asset value as of the reporting date. Non-USD fund cash flows and residual values are converted to USD using the spot rate as of the reporting date. In addition, net IRR at the fund level will differ from that at the individual investor level as a result of, among other factors, timing of investor-level inflows and outflows. Net IRR does not represent the return to any fund investor.|
|Net IRR of a traditional private equity or the hybrid value funds||The gross IRR applicable to the fund, including returns for related parties which may not pay fees or performance fees, net of management fees, certain expenses (including interest incurred or earned by the fund itself) and realized performance fees all offset to the extent of interest income, and measures returns at the fund level on amounts that, if distributed, would be paid to investors of the fund. The timing of cash flows applicable to investments, management fees and certain expenses, may be adjusted for the usage of a fund’s subscription facility. To the extent that a fund exceeds all requirements detailed within the applicable fund agreement, the estimated unrealized value is adjusted such that a percentage of up to 20.0% of the unrealized gain is allocated to the general partner of such fund, thereby reducing the balance attributable to fund investors. In addition, net IRR at the fund level will differ from that at the individual investor level as a result of, among other factors, timing of investor-level inflows and outflows. Net IRR does not represent the return to any fund investor.|
|Net IRR of infrastructure funds||The cumulative cash flows in the fund (and not any one investor in the fund), on the basis of the actual timing of cash inflows received from and outflows paid to investors of the fund (assuming the ending net asset value as of the reporting date or other date specified is paid to investors), excluding certain non-fee and non-performance fee bearing parties, and the return is annualized and compounded after management fees, performance fees, and certain other expenses (including interest incurred by the fund itself) and measures the returns to investors of the fund as a whole. Non-USD fund cash flows and residual values are converted to USD using the spot rate as of the reporting date. In addition, net IRR at the fund level will differ from that at the individual investor level as a result of, among other factors, timing of investor-level inflows and outflows. Net IRR does not represent the return to any fund investor.|
|Net reserve liabilities||The sum of (a) interest sensitive contract liabilities, (b) future policy benefits, (c) long-term repurchase obligations, (d) dividends payable to policyholders, and (e) other policy claims and benefits, offset by reinsurance recoverable, excluding policy loans ceded. Net reserve liabilities also includes the reserves related to assumed modco agreements in order to appropriately match the costs incurred in the consolidated statements of operations with the liabilities. Net reserve liabilities is net of the ceded liabilities to third-party reinsurers as the costs of the liabilities are passed to such reinsurers and therefore we have no net economic exposure to such liabilities, assuming our reinsurance counterparties perform under our agreements. Net reserve liabilities includes our economic ownership of ACRA reserve liabilities but does not include the reserve liabilities associated with the noncontrolling interest.|
|Net Return or Net ROE of a total return yield fund or the hybrid credit hedge fund||
The gross return after management fees, performance fees allocated to the general partner, or other fees and expenses. Returns over multiple periods are calculated by geometrically linking each period’s return over time. Net return and net ROE do not represent the return to any fund investor.
|Non-Fee-Generating AUM||AUM that does not produce management fees or monitoring fees. This measure generally includes the following:
(i) fair value above invested capital for those funds that earn management fees based on invested capital;
(ii) net asset values related to general partner and co-investment interests;
(iii) unused credit facilities;
(iv) available commitments on those funds that generate management fees on invested capital;
(v) structured portfolio company investments that do not generate monitoring fees; and
(vi) the difference between gross asset and net asset value for those funds that earn management fees based on net asset value.
|NYC UBT||New York City Unincorporated Business Tax|
|NYSDFS||New York State Department of Financial Services|
|Other operating expenses within the Principal Investing segment||Expenses incurred in the normal course of business and includes allocations of non-compensation expenses related to managing the business.|
|Other operating expenses within the Retirement Services segment||Expenses incurred in the normal course of business inclusive of compensation and non-compensation expenses.|
|Payout annuities||Annuities with a current cash payment component, which consist primarily of single premium immediate annuities, supplemental contracts and structured settlements.|
|PCD||Purchased Credit Deteriorated Investments|
|Performance allocations, Performance fees, Performance revenues, Incentive fees and Incentive income||The interests granted to Apollo by a fund managed by Apollo that entitle Apollo to receive allocations, distributions or fees which are based on the performance of such fund or its underlying investments.|
|Performance Fee-Eligible AUM||AUM that may eventually produce performance fees. All funds for which we are entitled to receive a performance fee allocation or incentive fee are included in Performance Fee-Eligible AUM, which consists of the following:
(i) “Performance Fee-Generating AUM”, which refers to invested capital of the funds, partnerships and accounts we manage, advise, or to which we provide certain other investment-related services, that is currently above its hurdle rate or preferred return, and profit of such funds, partnerships and accounts is being allocated to, or earned by, the general partner in accordance with the applicable limited partnership agreements or other governing agreements;
(ii) “AUM Not Currently Generating Performance Fees”, which refers to invested capital of the funds, partnerships and accounts we manage, advise, or to which we provide certain other investment-related services, that is currently below its hurdle rate or preferred return; and
(iii) “Uninvested Performance Fee-Eligible AUM”, which refers to capital of the funds, partnerships and accounts we manage, advise, or to which we provide certain other investment-related services, that is available for investment or reinvestment subject to the provisions of applicable limited partnership agreements or other governing agreements, which capital is not currently part of the NAV or fair value of investments that may eventually produce performance fees allocable to, or earned by, the general partner.
Assets under management of indefinite duration, that may only be withdrawn under certain conditions or subject to certain limitations, including but not limited to satisfying required hold periods or percentage limits on the amounts that may be redeemed over a particular period. The investment management, advisory or other service agreements with our perpetual capital vehicles may be terminated under certain circumstances.
|Principal Investing Income, or PII||Component of Adjusted Segment Income that is used to assess the performance of the Principal Investing segment. For the Principal Investing segment, PII is the sum of (i) realized performance fees, excluding realizations received in the form of shares, (ii) realized investment income, less (x) realized principal investing compensation expense, excluding expense related to equity-based compensation, and (y) certain corporate compensation and non-compensation expenses.|
|Principal investing compensation||Realized performance compensation, distributions related to investment income and dividends, and includes allocations of certain compensation expenses related to managing the business.|
|Policy loan||A loan to a policyholder under the terms of, and which is secured by, a policyholder’s policy|
|Realized value||All cash investment proceeds received by the relevant Apollo fund, including interest and dividends, but does not give effect to management fees, expenses, incentive compensation or performance fees to be paid by such Apollo fund.|
|Redding Ridge||Redding Ridge Asset Management, LLC and its subsidiaries, which is a standalone, self-managed asset management business established in connection with risk retention rules that manages CLOs and retains the required risk retention interests.|
|Redding Ridge Holdings||Redding Ridge Holdings LP|
|Remaining Cost||The initial investment of a fund in a portfolio investment, reduced for any return of capital distributed to date on such portfolio investment|
|Rider reserves||Guaranteed lifetime withdrawal benefits and guaranteed minimum death benefits reserves|
|RMBS||Residential mortgage-backed securities|
|RML||Residential mortgage loan|
|RSUs||Restricted share units|
|SIA||Strategic investment account|
|SPACs||Special purpose acquisition companies|
|Spread Related Earnings, or SRE||Component of Adjusted Segment Income that is used to assess the performance of the Retirement Services segment, excluding certain market volatility and certain expenses related to integration, restructuring, equity-based compensation, and other expenses. For the Retirement Services segment, SRE equals the sum of (i) the net investment earnings on Athene’s net invested assets and (ii) management fees received on business managed for others, primarily the ADIP portion of Athene's business ceded to ACRA, less (x) cost of funds, (y) operating expenses excluding equity-based compensation and (z) financing costs including interest expense and preferred dividends, if any, paid to Athene preferred stockholders.|
|Surplus assets||Assets in excess of policyholder obligations, determined in accordance with the applicable domiciliary jurisdiction’s statutory accounting principles.|
|Tax receivable agreement||The tax receivable agreement entered into by and among APO Corp., the Former Managing Partners, the Contributing Partners, and other parties thereto|
|TDI||Texas Department of Insurance|
|Total Invested Capital||The aggregate cash invested by the relevant Apollo fund and includes capitalized costs relating to investment activities, if any, but does not give effect to cash pending investment or available for reserves and excludes amounts, if any, invested on a financed basis with leverage facilities|
|Total Value||The sum of the total Realized Value and Unrealized Value of investments|
|Traditional private equity funds||
Apollo Investment Fund I, L.P. (“Fund I”), AIF II, L.P. (“Fund II”), a mirrored investment account established to mirror Fund I and Fund II for investments in debt securities (“MIA”), Apollo Investment Fund III, L.P. (together with its parallel funds, “Fund III”), Apollo Investment Fund IV, L.P. (together with its parallel fund, “Fund IV”), Apollo Investment Fund V, L.P. (together with its parallel funds and alternative investment vehicles, “Fund V”), Apollo Investment Fund VI, L.P. (together with its parallel funds and alternative investment vehicles, “Fund VI”), Apollo Investment Fund VII, L.P. (together with its parallel funds and alternative investment vehicles, “Fund VII”), Apollo Investment Fund VIII, L.P. (together with its parallel funds and alternative investment vehicles, “Fund VIII”) and Apollo Investment Fund IX, L.P. (together with its parallel funds and alternative investment vehicles, “Fund IX”).
|U.S. GAAP||Generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America|
|U.S. RBC||The CAL RBC ratio for AADE, Athene's parent US insurance company|
|U.S. Treasury||United States Department of the Treasury|
|Unrealized Value||The fair value consistent with valuations determined in accordance with GAAP, for investments not yet realized and may include payments in kind, accrued interest and dividends receivable, if any, and before the effect of certain taxes. In addition, amounts include committed and funded amounts for certain investments.|
|Venerable||Venerable Holdings, Inc., together with its subsidiaries|
|VIAC||Venerable Insurance and Annuity Company, formerly Voya Insurance and Annuity Company|
|VIE||Variable interest entity|
|Vintage Year||The year in which a fund’s final capital raise occurred, or, for certain funds, the year of a fund’s effective date or the year in which a fund’s investment period commences pursuant to its governing agreements.|
|VIVAT N.V.||Athora Netherlands N.V. (formerly known as: VIVAT N.V.)|
|VOBA||Value of business acquired|
|VOE||Voting interest entity|
|WACC||Weighted average cost of capital|
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Index to Business
Founded in 1990, Apollo is a high-growth, global alternative asset manager and a retirement services provider. Apollo conducts its business primarily in the United States through the following three reportable segments: Asset Management, Retirement Services and Principal Investing. These business segments are differentiated based on the investment services they provide as well as varying investing strategies.
Our Asset Management segment focuses on three investing strategies: yield, hybrid and equity. These strategies reflect the range of investment capabilities across our platform based on relative risk and return. As an asset manager, we earn fees for providing investment management services and expertise to our client base. The amount of fees charged for managing these assets depends on the underlying investment strategy, liquidity profile, and, ultimately our ability to generate returns for our clients. We also earn capital solutions fees as part of our growing capital solutions business and as part of monitoring and deployment activity alongside our sizable private equity franchise. After expenses, we call the resulting earning stream “Fee Related Earnings” or “FRE”, which represents the primary performance measure for the Asset Management segment. As of December 31, 2022, we had total AUM of $547.6 billion.
Our Asset Management segment had a team of 2,540 employees as of December 31, 2022, with offices throughout the world. This team possesses a broad range of transaction, financial, managerial and investment skills. We operate our asset management business in a highly integrated manner, which we believe distinguishes us from other alternative asset managers. Our investment teams frequently collaborate across disciplines and we believe that this collaboration enables our clients to more successfully invest across a company’s capital structure. Our objective is to achieve superior long-term risk-adjusted returns for our clients. The majority of the investment funds we manage are designed to invest capital over a period of several years from inception, thereby allowing us to seek to generate attractive long-term returns throughout economic cycles. We have a contrarian, value-oriented investment approach, emphasizing downside protection, and the preservation of capital. We believe our contrarian investment approach is reflected in a number of ways, including:
•our willingness to pursue investments in industries that our competitors typically avoid;
•the often complex structures employed in some of the investments of our funds;
•our experience investing during periods of uncertainty or distress in the economy or financial markets; and
•our willingness to undertake transactions that have substantial business, regulatory or legal complexity.
We have applied this investment philosophy to identify what we believe are attractive investment opportunities, deploy capital across the balance sheet of industry leading, or “franchise,” businesses and create value throughout economic cycles.
Yield is our largest asset management strategy with $392.5 billion of AUM as of December 31, 2022. Our yield strategy focuses on generating excess returns through high-quality credit underwriting and origination. Beyond participation in the traditional issuance and secondary credit markets, through our affiliated origination platforms and corporate solutions capabilities we seek to originate attractive and safe-yielding assets for the investors in the funds we manage. Within our yield strategy, we target 4% to 10% returns for our clients. Since inception, the total return yield fund has generated a 5% gross Return on Equity (“ROE”) and 4% net ROE annualized through December 31, 2022. The investment portfolios of the yield-oriented funds Apollo manages include several asset classes, as described below:
•Corporate Fixed Income ($100.9 billion of AUM), which generally includes investment grade corporate bonds, emerging markets investments and investment grade private placement investments;
•Corporate Credit ($76.7 billion of AUM), which includes performing credit investments, including income-oriented, senior loan and bond investments involving issuers primarily domiciled in the U.S. and in Europe as well as investment grade asset-backed securities;
•Structured Credit ($78.5 billion of AUM), which includes corporate structured and asset-backed securities as well as consumer and residential real estate credit investments;
•Real Estate Debt ($38.9 billion of AUM), including debt investments across a broad spectrum of property types and at various points within a property’s capital structure, including first mortgage and mezzanine financing and preferred equity; and
•Direct Origination ($35.5 billion of AUM), which includes originations (both directly with sponsors and through banks) and investments in loans primarily related to middle market lending and aviation finance.
Our hybrid strategy, with $56.4 billion of AUM as of December 31, 2022, brings together our capabilities across debt and equity to seek to offer a differentiated risk-adjusted return with an emphasis on structured downside protected opportunities across asset classes. We target 8% to 15% returns within our hybrid strategy by pursuing investments in all market environments, deploying capital during both periods of dislocation and market strength, and focusing on different investing strategies and asset classes. The flagship hybrid credit hedge fund we manage has generated an 11% gross ROE and a 7% net ROE annualized and the hybrid value funds we manage have generated a 21% gross IRR and a 16% net IRR from inception through December 31, 2022. The investing strategies and asset classes within our hybrid strategy are described below:
•Accord and Credit Strategies ($10.8 billion of AUM), which refers to the investment strategy of certain funds managed by Apollo that invest opportunistically in both the primary and secondary markets in order to seek to capitalize on both near- and longer-term relative value across market cycles. The investment portfolios of these funds include credit investments in a broad array of primary and secondary opportunities encompassing stressed and distressed public and private securities, including senior loans (secured and unsecured), large corporate investment grade loan origination and structured capital solutions, high yield, mezzanine, derivative securities, debtor in possession financings, rescue or bridge financings, and other debt investments.
•Hybrid Value ($10.3 billion of AUM), which refers to the investment strategy of certain funds managed by Apollo that focus on providing companies with, among other things, rescue financing or customized capital solutions, including senior secured and unsecured debt or preferred equity securities, often with equity-linked or equity-like upside, as well as structured equity investments.
•Infrastructure Equity ($5.4 billion of AUM), which refers to the investment strategy of certain funds managed by Apollo that focus on investing in a broad range of infrastructure assets, including communications, midstream energy, power and renewables, and transportation related assets.
•Hybrid Real Estate ($5.1 billion of AUM), which includes our real estate income focused strategies, including core, core plus and net lease investments. Our hybrid real estate strategy consists of public and private funds that focus on investing in substantially stabilized commercial real estate properties across property types and geographies, both in the United States and in Europe.
Our equity strategy represents $98.8 billion of AUM as of December 31, 2022. Our equity strategy emphasizes flexibility, complexity, and purchase price discipline to drive opportunistic-like returns for our clients throughout market cycles. Apollo’s equity team has experience across sectors, industries, and geographies in both private equity and real estate equity. Our control equity transactions are principally buyouts, corporate carveouts and distressed investments, while the real estate funds we manage generally transact in single asset, portfolio and platform acquisitions. Within our equity strategy, we target upwards of 15% returns in the funds we manage. We have consistently produced attractive long-term investment returns in the traditional private equity funds we manage, generating a 39% gross IRR and a 24% net IRR on a compound annual basis from inception through December 31, 2022. Our equity strategy focuses on several investing strategies as described below:
•Flagship Private Equity ($69.1 billion of AUM), which refers to our investment strategy focused on creating investment opportunities with attractive risk-adjusted returns across industries and geographies and throughout market cycles, utilizing our value-oriented investment approach. Through this strategy, we seek to build portfolios of investments that are created at meaningful discounts to comparable market multiples of adjusted cash flow, thereby resulting in what we believe are portfolios focused on capital preservation. The transactions in this strategy include opportunistic buyouts, corporate carveouts and distressed investments. After their acquisition by an Apollo-managed fund, Apollo works with the portfolio companies of the funds it manages to seek to accelerate growth and execute a value creation strategy.
Included within flagship private equity are assets related to our impact investment strategy, which pursues private equity-like investment opportunities with the intention of generating a positive, measurable, social and/or environmental impact while also seeking to generate attractive risk-adjusted returns. The impact investment strategy targets investment opportunities across five core impact-aligned investment themes: (i) economic opportunity, (ii) education; (iii) health, safety and wellness; (iv) industry 4.0; and (v) climate and sustainability.
•European Principal Finance (“EPF”) ($8.0 billion of AUM), which refers to our investment strategy focused on European commercial and residential real estate, performing loans, non-performing loans, and unsecured consumer loans, as well as acquiring assets as a result of distressed market situations. Certain of the European Principal Finance vehicles we manage also own captive pan-European financial institutions, loan servicing and property management platforms that perform banking and lending activities and manage and service consumer credit receivables and loans secured by commercial and residential properties.
•Real Estate Equity ($5.6 billion of AUM), which refers to our value add and opportunistic investment strategies that target investments in real estate and real estate-related assets, portfolios and platforms located across various real estate asset classes in regionally focused private funds in both the United States and Asia.
Included within our investing strategies above is $321.4 billion of perpetual capital, out of the $547.6 billion of AUM as of December 31, 2022. As of December 31, 2022, perpetual capital includes, without limitation, certain assets in our yield strategy, including assets relating to publicly traded and non-traded vehicles, certain origination platform assets and assets managed for certain of our retirement services clients. Perpetual capital assets may be withdrawn under certain circumstances and utilize a range of investment strategies, including those described previously.
Apollo’s asset management business, through its consolidated subsidiary, ISG, provides a full suite of services for Athene’s investment portfolio, including direct investment management, asset allocation, merger and acquisition asset diligence, and certain operational support services, including investment compliance, tax, legal and risk management support. See “Item 1. Business—Our Businesses—Retirement Services” for further details regarding Athene’s retirement services business. As of
December 31, 2022, Apollo managed or advised $236.0 billion of AUM, of which $234.8 billion was Fee-Generating AUM, in accounts owned by or related to Athene (“Athene Accounts”).
Apollo’s asset management business, through its consolidated subsidiary, ISGI, provides investment advisory services to certain portfolio companies of Apollo funds and Athora, a strategic liabilities platform that acquires or reinsures blocks of insurance business in the German and broader European life insurance market (collectively, the “Athora Accounts”). As of December 31, 2022, Apollo, through its subsidiaries, managed or advised $52.6 billion of AUM and $49.8 billion of Fee-Generating AUM in Athora Accounts. See note 17 to our consolidated financial statements for details regarding the fee arrangements between the Company and Athora.
Athora Non-Sub-Advised Assets
This category includes the Athora assets which are managed by Apollo but not sub-advised by Apollo nor invested in Apollo funds or investment vehicles. We refer to these assets collectively as “Athora Non-Sub-Advised Assets.” Our AUM within the Athora Non-Sub-Advised category totaled $35.8 billion as of December 31, 2022, of which $32.9 billion was Fee-Generating AUM.
Fundraising and Investor Relations
Within the asset management business, our fundraising strategy consists of the yield, hybrid, and equity strategies. We raise private capital from prominent institutional investors, and from public market investors, as in the case of MFIC, AFT, AIF and ARI. In our equity strategy and certain funds in our hybrid strategy, fundraising activities for new funds begin once the investor capital commitments for the current fund are largely invested or committed to be invested. The investor base includes new investors and investors from prior funds, which in many instances have increased their commitments to subsequent funds. During the fundraising effort for Fund IX, investors representing over 85% of Fund VIII’s third party capital committed to Fund IX. The single largest unaffiliated investor in Fund IX represents 4% of Fund IX’s total fund size. In addition, many of our investment professionals commit their own capital to each flagship equity fund.
We maintain a rigorous investment process for yield, hybrid, and equity investments, and have in place procedures to allocate investment opportunities among the funds we manage. We have professionals responsible for selecting, evaluating, structuring, performing due diligence on, negotiating, executing, monitoring and exiting investments for our traditional equity funds, and yield and hybrid funds we manage, respectively, as well as for pursuing operational improvements in the funds’ portfolio companies through management consulting arrangements in case of equity funds. Our investment committees for relevant funds review the analyses of prospective investments, and ultimately approve recommended investments and dispositions.
The processes by which our funds receive and invest capital vary by investing strategy and type of fund. However, in all types of funds we manage, investors deliver capital when called by us as investment opportunities become available. We also have several perpetual capital vehicles with unlimited duration that raise capital by issuing equity securities in the public markets and can also issue debt. Our hedge fund style yield funds, generally structured as limited partnerships with customary redemption rights, continuously offer and sell shares or limited partner interests via private placements through monthly subscriptions, which are payable in full upon a fund’s acceptance of an investor’s subscription. The general partner’s capital commitment is determined through negotiation with the fund’s underlying investor base, and commitments are generally available for approximately six years. Generally, as each investment is realized, these funds first return the capital and expenses related to that investment and any previously realized investments to fund investors and then distribute any profits (which are typically shared 80% to the investors in equity funds and 20% to us, so long as the investors receive at least an 8% compounded annual return on their investment). Allocation of profits between fund investors and us, and the amount of the preferred return, among other provisions, varies for hybrid funds as well as many yield funds. Ownership interests in equity funds and are not subject to redemption prior to termination of the funds.
Our aim has been to build value in the portfolio companies of the hybrid and equity funds we manage. We are actively engaged with the management teams of these portfolio companies to maximize the underlying value of the business, by taking a holistic approach to value-creation and concentrating on both the asset side and liability side of the balance sheet of a company. These portfolio companies seek to capture discounts on publicly traded debt securities through exchange offers and potential debt buybacks. Our established group purchasing program helps the funds' portfolio companies leverage the combined corporate
spending among Apollo and portfolio companies of the funds it manages in order to seek to reduce costs, optimize payment terms and improve service levels for all program participants.
The value of the investments that have been made by funds are typically realized through either an initial public offering of common stock on a nationally recognized exchange or through the private sale of the companies in which funds have invested.
General Partner and Professionals Investments and Co-Investments
General Partner Investments
Certain management companies, general partners and co-invest vehicles are committed to contribute to the funds we manage and their affiliates. As a limited partner, general partner and manager of the Apollo funds, Apollo had unfunded capital commitments as of December 31, 2022 of $0.6 billion.
To further align our interests with those of investors in the funds we manage, certain of our professionals have invested their own capital in the funds. Our professionals will either re-invest their performance fees to fund these investments or use cash on hand or funds borrowed from third parties. We generally have not historically charged management fees or performance fees on capital invested by our professionals directly in the funds.
Investors in many of the funds we manage, as well as certain other investors, may have the opportunity to make co-investments with the funds. Co-investments are investments in portfolio companies or other fund assets generally on the same terms and conditions as those to which the applicable fund is subject.
Our retirement services business is conducted by Athene, a leading financial services company that specializes in issuing, reinsuring and acquiring retirement savings products designed for the increasing number of individuals and institutions seeking to fund retirement needs. Athene is led by a highly skilled management team with extensive industry experience and is based in Bermuda with its U.S. subsidiaries’ headquarters located in Iowa. Our asset management business provides a full suite of services for Athene’s investment portfolio, including direct investment management, asset allocation, merger and acquisition asset diligence and certain operational support services, including investment compliance, tax, legal and risk management support. As of December 31, 2022, Athene had 1,718 employees.
Our retirement services business focuses on generating spread income by combining the two core competencies of (1) sourcing long-term, persistent liabilities and (2) using the global scale and reach of our asset management business to actively source or originate assets with Athene’s preferred risk and return characteristics. Athene’s investment philosophy is to invest a portion of its assets in securities that earn an incremental yield by taking measured liquidity and complexity risk and capitalizing on its long-dated funding profile to prudently achieve higher net investment earned rates, rather than assuming incremental credit risk. A cornerstone of Athene’s investment philosophy is that given the operating leverage inherent in its business, modest investment outperformance can translate to outsized return performance. Because Athene maintains discipline in underwriting attractively priced liabilities, it has the ability to invest in a broad range of high-quality assets to generate attractive earnings.
Our asset management expertise supports the sourcing and underwriting of assets for Athene’s portfolio. Athene is invested in a diverse array of primarily high-grade fixed income assets, including corporate bonds, structured securities and commercial and residential real estate loans, among others. Athene establishes risk thresholds which in turn define risk tolerance across a wide range of factors, including credit risk, liquidity risk, concentration risk and caps on specific asset classes. In addition to other efforts, Athene partially mitigates the risk of rising interest rates by strategically allocating a meaningful portion of its investment portfolio into floating rate securities. Athene also maintains holdings in less interest rate-sensitive investments, including collateralized loan obligations (“CLO”), commercial mortgage loans (“CML”), residential mortgage loans (“RML”), non-agency residential mortgage-backed securities (“RMBS”) and various types of structured products, consistent with its strategy of pursuing incremental yield by assuming liquidity risk and complexity risk, rather than assuming incremental credit risk.
Rather than increase its allocation to higher risk securities to increase yield, Athene pursues the direct origination of high-quality, predominantly senior secured assets, which it believes possess greater alpha-generating qualities than securities that would otherwise be readily available in public markets. These direct origination strategies include investments sourced by (1) affiliated platforms that originate loans to third parties and in which Athene gains exposure directly to the loan or indirectly through its ownership of the origination platform and/or securitizations of assets originated by the origination platform, and (2) our asset management team’s extensive network of direct relationships with predominantly investment-grade counterparties.
Athene uses, and may continue to use, derivatives, including swaps, options, futures and forward contracts, and reinsurance contracts to hedge risks such as current or future changes in the fair value of its assets and liabilities, current or future changes in cash flows, changes in interest rates, equity markets, currency fluctuations and changes in longevity.
Athene principally offers two product lines: annuities and funding agreements.
Athene’s primary product line is annuities, which include Fixed Indexed Annuities (“FIA”), Fixed Rate Annuities, Registered Index-Linked Annuities (“RILAs”), Payout Annuities and Group Annuities.
Fixed Indexed Annuities. FIAs are the majority of Athene’s net reserve liabilities. FIAs are a type of insurance contract in which the policyholder makes one or more premium deposits which earn interest, on a tax deferred basis, at a crediting rate based on a specified market index, subject to a specified cap, spread or participation rate. FIAs allow policyholders the possibility of earning interest without significant risk to principal, unless the contract is surrendered during a surrender charge period. A market index tracks the performance of a specific group of stocks or other assets representing a particular segment of the market, or in some cases, an entire market. Athene generally buys options on the indices to which the FIAs are tied to hedge the associated market risk. The cost of the option is priced into the overall economics of the product as an option budget.
Athene generates income on FIA products by earning an investment spread, based on the difference between (1) income earned on the investments supporting the liabilities and (2) the cost of funds, including fixed interest credited to customers, option costs, the cost of providing guarantees (net of rider fees), policy issuance and maintenance costs, and commission costs.
Fixed Rate Annuities. Fixed rate annuities include annual reset annuities and multi-year guaranteed annuities (“MYGA”). Unlike FIAs, fixed rate annuities earn interest at a set rate (or declared crediting rate), rather than a rate that may vary based on an index. Fixed rate annual reset annuities have a crediting rate that is typically guaranteed for one year. After such period, Athene has the ability to change the crediting rate at its discretion, generally once annually, to any rate at or above a guaranteed minimum rate. MYGAs are similar to annual reset annuities except that the initial crediting rate is guaranteed for a specified number of years, rather than just one year, before it may be changed at Athene’s discretion. After the initial crediting period, MYGAs can generally be reset annually.
Registered Index-Linked Annuities. RILAs are similar to FIAs in offering the policyholder the opportunity for tax-deferred growth based in part on the performance of a market index. Compared to an FIA, RILAs have the potential for higher returns but also have the potential for risk of loss to principal and related earnings. RILAs provide the ability for the policyholder to participate in the positive performance of certain market indices during a term, limited by a cap or adjusted for a participation rate. Negative performance of the market indices during a term can result in negative policyholder returns, with downside protection typically provided in the form of either a “buffer” or a “floor” to limit the policyholder’s exposure to market loss. A “buffer” is protection from negative exposure up to a certain percentage, typically 10 or 20 percent. A “floor” is protection from negative exposure less than a stated percentage (i.e., the policyholder risks exposure of loss up to the “floor,” but is protected against any loss in excess of this amount).
Income Riders to Fixed Annuity Products. The income riders on Athene’s deferred annuities can be broadly categorized as either guaranteed or participating. Guaranteed income riders provide policyholders with a guaranteed lifetime withdrawal benefit, which permits policyholders to elect to receive guaranteed payments for life from their contract without having to annuitize their policies. Participating income riders tend to have lower levels of guaranteed income than guaranteed income riders but provide policyholders the opportunity to receive greater levels of income if the policies’ indexed crediting strategies perform well. As of December 31, 2022, 32% of Athene’s deferred annuity account value had rider benefits.
Withdrawal Options for Deferred Annuities. After the first year following the issuance of a deferred annuity, the policyholder is typically permitted to make withdrawals up to 5% or 10% (depending on the contract) of the prior year’s value without a surrender charge or market value adjustment (“MVA”), subject to certain limitations. Withdrawals in excess of the allowable amounts are assessed a surrender charge and MVA if such withdrawals are made during the surrender charge period of the policy, which generally ranges from 3 to 20 years. The surrender charge for most Athene products at contract inception is generally between 5% and 15% of the contract value and decreases by approximately one percentage point per year during the surrender charge period. The average surrender charge (excluding the impact of MVAs) was 6% for Athene’s deferred annuities as of December 31, 2022.
At maturity, the policyholder may elect to receive proceeds in the form of a single payment or an annuity. If the annuity option is selected, the policyholder will receive a series of payments either over the policyholder’s lifetime or over a fixed number of years, depending upon the terms of the contract. Some contracts permit annuitization prior to maturity.
Payout Annuities. Payout annuities primarily consist of single premium immediate annuities (“SPIA”), supplemental contracts and structured settlements. Payout annuities provide a series of periodic payments for a fixed period of time or for the life of the policyholder, based upon the policyholder’s election at the time of issuance. The amounts, frequency and length of time of the payments are fixed at the outset of the annuity contract. SPIAs are often purchased by persons at or near retirement age who desire a steady stream of payments over a future period of years. Supplemental contracts are typically created upon the conversion of a death claim or the annuitization of a deferred annuity. Structured settlements generally relate to legal settlements.
Group Annuities. Group annuities issued in connection with pension group annuity transactions usually involve a single premium group annuity contract issued to discharge certain pension plan liabilities. The group annuities that Athene issues are non-participating contracts. The assets supporting the guaranteed benefits for each contract may be held in a separate account. Group annuity benefits may be purchased for current, retired and/or terminated employees and their beneficiaries covered under terminating or continuing pension plans. Both immediate and deferred annuity certificates may be issued pursuant to a single group annuity contract. Immediate annuity certificates cover those retirees and beneficiaries currently receiving payments, whereas deferred annuity certificates cover those participants who have not yet begun receiving benefit payments. Immediate annuity certificates have no cash surrender rights, whereas deferred annuity certificates may include an election to receive a lump sum payment, exercisable by the participant upon either the participant achieving a specified age or the occurrence of a specified event, such as termination of the participant’s employment.
Athene earns income on group annuities based upon the spread between the return on the assets received in connection with the pension group annuity transaction and the cost of the pension obligations assumed. Group annuities expose Athene to longevity risk, which would be realized if plan participants live longer than assumed in underwriting the transaction, resulting in aggregate payments that exceed Athene’s expectations. However, Athene’s conservative underwriting process makes use of a wealth of pre- and post-selection participant data, including mortality experience data, particularly for mid to large size transactions, to mitigate this risk.
Funding agreements include those issued to institutions and to special-purpose unaffiliated trusts in connection with Athene’s funding agreement backed notes (“FABN”) and secured funding agreement backed repurchase agreement (“FABR”) programs. Funding agreements are issued opportunistically to institutional investors at attractive risk-adjusted funding costs. Funding agreements are negotiated privately between an investor and an insurance company. They are designed to provide an agreement holder with a guaranteed return of principal and periodic interest payments, while offering competitive yields and predictable returns. The interest rate can be fixed or floating. Athene also includes repurchase agreements with a term that exceeds one year at the time of execution within the funding agreement product category.
Athene has developed four dedicated distribution channels to address the retirement services market: retail, flow reinsurance, institutional and acquisitions and block reinsurance, which support opportunistic origination across differing market environments. Additionally, Athene believes these distribution channels enable it to achieve stable asset growth while maintaining attractive returns.
Athene has built a scalable platform that allows it to originate and rapidly grow its business in deferred annuity products. Athene has developed a suite of retirement savings products, distributed through its network of approximately 54 independent marketing organizations (“IMOs”); approximately 78,000 independent agents in all 50 states; and a growing network of 16 banks and 127 regional broker-dealers. Athene is focused in every aspect of its retail channel on providing high quality products and service to its policyholders and maintaining appropriate financial protection over the life of their policies.
Flow reinsurance provides another channel for Athene to source liabilities with attractive cost of funds and offers insurance companies the opportunity to improve their product offerings and enhance their financial results. As in the retail channel, Athene does not pursue flow volume growth at the expense of profitability, and therefore tends to respond rapidly to adjust pricing for changes in asset yields.
Reinsurance is an arrangement under which an insurance company, the reinsurer, agrees to indemnify another insurance company, the ceding company or cedant, for all or a portion of certain insurance risks underwritten by the ceding company. Reinsurance is designed to (1) reduce the net amount at risk on individual risks, thereby enabling the ceding company to increase the volume of business it can underwrite, as well as increase the maximum risk it can underwrite on a single risk, (2) stabilize operating results by reducing volatility in the ceding company’s loss experience, (3) assist the ceding company in meeting applicable regulatory requirements and (4) enhance the ceding company’s financial strength and surplus position.
Within its flow reinsurance channel, Athene conducts third-party flow reinsurance transactions primarily through its subsidiary, Athene Life Re Ltd. (“ALRe”). As a fixed annuity reinsurer, ALRe partners with insurance companies to develop solutions to their capital requirements, enhance their presence in the retirement market and improve their financial results. The specific liabilities that ALRe targets to reinsure include FIAs, MYGAs, traditional one-year guarantee fixed deferred annuities, immediate annuities and institutional products.
Athene’s institutional channel includes funding agreements and pension group annuities.
Funding Agreements. Athene participates in an FABN program through which it may issue funding agreements to a special-purpose trust, that issues senior secured medium-term notes. The notes are underwritten and marketed by major investment banks’ broker-dealer operations and are sold to institutional investors. The proceeds of the issuance of notes are used by the trust to purchase one or more funding agreements from Athene subsidiaries with matching interest and maturity payment terms. Athene also established a secured FABR program, in which a special-purpose, unaffiliated entity may enter into a repurchase agreement with a bank and the proceeds of the repurchase agreement are used by the special-purpose entity to purchase funding agreements from Athene subsidiaries. Athene is also a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Des Moines (“FHLB”) and, through membership, has issued funding agreements to the FHLB in exchange for cash advances. Athene is required to provide collateral in excess of the funding agreement amounts outstanding, considering any discounts to the securities posted and prepayment penalties. Finally, repurchase agreements with an original maturity exceeding one year at the time of execution are also included within the funding agreement product category.
Pension Group Annuities. Athene partners with institutions seeking to transfer and thereby reduce their obligation to pay future pension benefits to retirees and deferred participants through pension group annuities. Athene works with advisors, brokers and consultants to source pension group annuity transactions and design solutions that meet the needs of prospective pension group annuity counterparties.
Acquisitions and Block Reinsurance
Acquisitions. Acquisitions are a complementary source of growth in our retirement services business. Athene has a proven ability to acquire businesses in complex transactions at favorable terms, manage the liabilities acquired and reinvest the associated assets.
Block Reinsurance. Through block reinsurance transactions, Athene partners with life and annuity companies to decrease their exposure to one or more products or to divest of lower-margin or non-core segments of their businesses. Unlike acquisitions in
which Athene acquires the assets or stock of a target company, block reinsurance allows Athene to contractually assume assets and liabilities associated with a certain book of business. In doing so, Athene contractually assumes responsibility for only that portion of the business that it deems desirable, without assuming additional liabilities.
Athene believes it has a strong capital position and is well positioned to meet policyholder and other obligations. Athene measures capital sufficiency using an internal capital model which reflects management’s view on the various risks inherent to its business, the amount of capital required to support its core operating strategies and the amount of capital necessary to maintain its current ratings in a recessionary environment. The amount of capital required to support Athene’s core operating strategies is determined based upon internal modeling and analysis of economic risk, as well as inputs from rating agency capital models and consideration of both National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”) risk-based capital (“RBC”) and Bermuda capital requirements. Capital in excess of this required amount is considered excess equity capital, which is available to deploy.
Athene’s deployable capital is comprised of capital from three sources: excess equity capital, untapped debt capacity and available undrawn capital commitments from ACRA. As of December 31, 2022, Athene estimates that it had approximately $5.2 billion in capital available to deploy, consisting of approximately $2.3 billion in excess equity capital, $2.7 billion in untapped debt capacity (assuming a peer average adjusted debt to capitalization ratio of 25%) and $0.2 billion in available undrawn capital at ACRA, subject, in the case of debt capacity, to market conditions and general availability.
In order to support growth strategies and capital deployment opportunities, Athene established ACRA as a long-duration, on-demand capital vehicle. Athene owns 36.55% of ACRA’s economic interests and all of ACRA’s voting interests, with the remaining 63.45% of the economic interests being owned by Apollo/Athene Dedicated Investment Program (“ADIP”), a series of funds managed by Apollo. ACRA participates in certain transactions by drawing a portion of the required capital for such transactions from third-party investors equal to ADIP’s proportionate economic interest in ACRA. This strategic capital solution is designed to provide Athene the flexibility to simultaneously deploy capital across multiple accretive avenues and sustain a profitable growth strategy at scale in a capital efficient manner, while maintaining a strong financial position.
Uses of Capital
Athene’s capital deployment includes the payment for a business opportunity, such as the payment of a ceding commission to enter into a block reinsurance transaction, and the retention of capital based on Athene’s internal capital model. Currently, Athene deploys capital in four primary ways: (1) supporting organic growth, (2) supporting inorganic growth, (3) making dividend payments to AGM, and (4) retaining capital to support financial strength ratings upgrades. Athene generally seeks mid-teen or higher returns on its capital deployment.
Subject to quota shares generally ranging from 80% to 100%, substantially all of the existing deposits held and new deposits generated by Athene’s U.S. insurance subsidiaries are reinsured to its Bermuda reinsurance subsidiaries. Athene maintains the same reserving standards for its Bermuda reinsurance subsidiaries as it does for its U.S. insurance subsidiaries. Athene also retrocedes certain inorganic transactions, pension group annuity transactions, funding agreement transactions and retail business to ACRA. Athene’s internal reinsurance structure provides it with several strategic and operational advantages, including the aggregation of regulatory capital, which makes the aggregate capital of its Bermuda reinsurance subsidiaries available to support the risks assumed by each entity, and enhanced operating efficiencies. As a result of its internal reinsurance structure and third-party direct to Bermuda business, a significant majority of Athene’s aggregate capital is held by its Bermuda reinsurance subsidiaries.
As of December 31, 2022, each of Athene’s significant insurance subsidiaries is rated “A+”, “A1” or “A” by the four rating agencies that evaluate the financial strength of such subsidiaries. To achieve financial strength ratings aspirations in the
Retirement Services segment, Athene may choose to retain additional capital above the level required by the rating agencies to support operating needs. Athene believes there are numerous benefits to achieving stronger ratings over time, including increased recognition of and confidence in its financial strength by prospective business partners, particularly within product distribution, as well as potential profitability improvements in certain organic channels through lower funding costs.
Our Principal Investing segment is comprised of our realized performance fee income, realized investment income from our balance sheet investments, and certain allocable expenses related to corporate functions supporting the entire company. The Principal Investing segment also includes our growth capital and liquidity resources at AGM. We expect to deploy capital into strategic investments over time that will help accelerate the growth of our Asset Management segment, by broadening our investment management and/or product distribution capabilities or increasing the efficiency of our operations. We believe these investments will translate into greater compounded annual growth of Fee Related Earnings.
Given the cyclical nature of performance fees, earnings from our Principal Investing segment, or Principal Investing Income (“PII”), is inherently more volatile in nature than earnings from the Asset Management and Retirement Services segments. We earn fees based on the investment performance of the funds we manage and compensate our employees, primarily investment professionals, with a meaningful portion of these proceeds to align our team with the investors in the funds we manage and incentivize them to deliver strong investment performance over time. We expect to increase the proportion of performance fee income we pay to our employees over time, and as such proportion increases, we expect PII to represent a relatively smaller portion of our total earnings.
Within the asset management business, Apollo operates in an intensely competitive industry, and expects it to remain so. We compete globally and on a regional, industry and niche basis.
We face competition both in the pursuit of outside investors for the funds we manage and in such funds acquiring investments in attractive portfolio companies and making other fund investments. We compete for outside investors for the funds we manage based on a variety of factors, including:
•investor perception of investment managers’ drive, focus and alignment of interest;
•quality of service provided to and duration of relationship with investors;
•business reputation; and
•the level of fees and expenses charged for services.
Competition is also intense for the attraction and retention of qualified employees. Our ability to continue to compete effectively in our businesses will depend upon our ability to attract new employees and retain and motivate our existing employees.
For additional information concerning the competitive risks that we face, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Operating Risks—We operate in highly competitive industries, which could limit our ability to achieve our growth strategies and could materially and adversely affect our businesses, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects.”
Athene operates in highly competitive markets. It faces a variety of large and small industry participants, including diversified financial institutions and insurance and reinsurance companies. These companies compete in one form or another for the growing pool of retirement assets driven by a number of external factors such as the continued aging of the population and the reduction in safety nets provided by governments and private employers. In the markets in which Athene operates, scale and the ability to provide value-added services and build long-term relationships are important factors to compete effectively. Athene believes that its leading presence in the retirement market, diverse range of capabilities and broad distribution network uniquely position it to effectively serve consumers’ increasing demand for retirement solutions, particularly in the FIA market.
Athene faces competition in the FIA market from traditional insurance carriers such as Allianz Life Insurance Company of North America (“Allianz”) and Corebridge Financial (formerly AIG Life & Retirement). Principal competitive factors for FIAs are initial crediting rates, reputation for renewal crediting action, product features, brand recognition, customer service, distribution capabilities and financial strength ratings of the provider. Competition may affect, among other matters, both business growth and the pricing of products and services.
Reinsurance markets are highly competitive, as well as cyclical by product and market. As a reinsurer, ALRe competes on the basis of many factors, including, among other things, financial strength, pricing and other terms and conditions of reinsurance agreements, reputation, service and experience in the types of business underwritten. The impact of these and other factors is generally not consistent across lines of business, domestic and international geographical areas and distribution channels. ALRe’s competition includes other insurance and reinsurance companies, such as Resolution Life Group Holdings LP and Global Atlantic Financial Group Limited (together with its subsidiaries, Global Atlantic).
Athene faces strong competition within its institutional channel. With respect to funding agreements, namely those issued in connection with its FABN program, Athene competes with other insurers that have active FABN programs, such as MetLife, Inc. (“MetLife”) and New York Life Insurance Company. Within the funding agreement market, it competes primarily on the basis of perceived financial strength, interest rates and term. With respect to group annuities, Athene competes with other insurers that offer such annuities, such as MetLife and Prudential Financial, Inc. Within the pension group annuities market, it competes primarily on the basis of price, underwriting, investment capabilities and its ability to provide quality service to the corporate sponsor’s pension participants.
Finally, Athene faces competition in the market for acquisition targets and profitable blocks of insurance. Such competition is likely to intensify as insurance businesses become more attractive acquisition targets for both other insurance companies and financial and other institutions and as the already substantial consolidation in the financial services industry continues. Athene competes for potential acquisition and block reinsurance opportunities based on a number of factors, including perceived financial strength, brand recognition, reputation and the pricing it is able to offer, which, to the extent Athene determines to finance a transaction, is in turn dependent on its ability to do so on suitable terms. Athene believes its demonstrated ability to source and consummate large and complex transactions is a competitive advantage over other potential acquirers.
We believe that investing in opportunities, communities and our people helps us to achieve exceptional outcomes for our shareholders and fund investors and a positive social impact. Apollo’s talent is instrumental to our success as a global alternative asset manager and retirement services provider, and investing in and fostering a high-performing, diverse and inclusive workforce is a key pillar of operating our business. We believe this commitment to diversity, equity and inclusion is central to the Apollo business model, an integrated platform which fosters strong collaboration across businesses and functions. Rooted in our core values, we strive to build a culture where our talent can excel and grow in their careers.
Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
At Apollo, we feel strongly that building a diverse and inclusive workforce is a strategic imperative.
We are approaching our diversity, equity and inclusion strategy through the positioning of our “expanding opportunity” initiative. Expanding opportunity focuses on three specific areas – workplace, marketplace and community. In collaboration with our employees, we are seeking to empower our entire organization to expand opportunity for underrepresented groups in the work we do, every day. We are keenly focused on how we attract, retain, develop and advance talent at Apollo. We believe that an engaged, diverse workforce is one that will bring its best ideas to innovate and drive value for the firm. To grow a more diverse workforce, we have established arrangements with several organizations to identify diverse talent. We are also committed to development of our existing talent through various opportunities including internal mobility, leadership development programs, and our employee affinity networks. Across the organization, from our team dedicated to citizenship initiatives to our employee affinity networks, we are committed to advancing a shared goal of building a more inclusive, modern high-performance culture.
We believe that ongoing professional development is a critical part of our culture at Apollo and an important enabler of our investment process. Because of our entrepreneurial culture, the breadth of our integrated platform, and our reputation for strong investment performance, we believe we can attract, develop and retain top talent. We have development programs in place at the associate, principal, managing director and partner levels which demonstrate our commitment to developing, engaging and retaining our employees. In addition to our training and annual review programs, we have instituted annual employee surveys that measure employee satisfaction and engagement, and help evaluate and guide human capital decision-making. We work in partnership with our employees to build ongoing culture and diversity, equity and inclusion initiatives that advance our goal of being a great place to work.
Compensation and Benefits
We work to offer a compelling employee value proposition to support our employees’ well-being and reward strong performance. Our pay for performance compensation philosophy is designed to reward employees for performance and to align employee interests with the firm’s long-term growth and with our shareholders. All of our employees are granted stock through a range of equity-based compensation programs, including our One Apollo stock program. A central component of our value proposition is engaging our people at all levels as leaders in building our culture and engaging in our communities. Our benefits programs are intended to support our employees and their families, and include healthcare, wellness initiatives, retirement programs, paid time off and family leave.
Apollo seeks to actively invest in our communities and engage our employees and other stakeholders in meaningful and impactful Citizenship Programs. Apollo offers its employees philanthropic, volunteer, and other forms of engagement to strengthen communities and expand opportunity around the globe. To empower employees to give back, Apollo hosts volunteer events and provides Citizenship Grants for matching gifts and volunteer rewards each year. Apollo is proud to amplify the efforts of employees, supporting the communities in which they live and the causes and organizations of greatest importance to them.
Apollo Opportunity Foundation
The Apollo Opportunity Foundation was launched in February 2022 to invest in non-profit organizations working to expand opportunity for underrepresented individuals. The Apollo Opportunity Foundation’s mission is to expand opportunity in communities where our employees live and work around the globe by deploying our capital and engaging our people to invest in career education, workforce development and economic empowerment for all. The Apollo Opportunity Foundation seeks to partner with organizations that are championed by our people to advance economic prosperity and expand opportunity for underrepresented individuals.
Environmental, Social and Governance
At Apollo, we believe that taking Sustainability and Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) factors into account can help drive value creation, and we recognize the unique opportunity to do well by doing good through investments.
We understand the potential financial, social and operational benefits of implementing ESG factors into our investment processes and have invested across industries aligned with the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals, including healthcare, education, and energy transition.
For more than 14 years, Apollo’s ESG program has committed extensive resources, time, and capital to incorporate ESG factors into our investment analysis and investment decision-making, consistent with fiduciary obligations to deliver superior risk-adjusted returns for investors. We strive to engage with portfolio companies and issuers on ESG issues across investment portfolios, seek appropriate and applicable disclosures, report on our ESG activities and progress, and the ESG activities and progress of portfolio companies of the funds we manage, to fund investors, shareholders, and stakeholders alike, and support the implementation of ESG best practices across the alternative asset management and retirement services industries.
In 2022, as part of Apollo’s effort to create an industry-leading corporate governance model, AGM’s board of directors established a sustainability and corporate responsibility committee of the board of directors. This committee assists the board of directors in overseeing AGM’s corporate responsibility and sustainability matters, including environmental sustainability and climate change, human rights, social impact, employee health and safety, and diversity, equity and inclusion. Apollo also took several steps in 2022 to support climate-related financial transparency and strengthen our internal capabilities.
Regulatory and Compliance Matters
Our businesses, as well as the financial services and insurance industries generally, are subject to extensive regulation in the United States and around the world. Virtually all aspects of our business are subject to various laws and regulations, some of which are summarized below. Under these laws and regulations, agencies that regulate investment advisers, investment funds, insurance companies, broker-dealers and other individuals and entities have broad administrative powers, including the power to limit, restrict or prohibit the regulated entity or person from carrying on business if it fails to comply with such laws and regulations.
Failure to comply with applicable regulatory and compliance requirements may result in a variety of consequences, including fines, administrative measures, suspension of voting rights, suspension of individual employees, limitations on engaging in certain lines of business for specified periods of time or mandatory disposal of interests in any affected regulated entity, revocation of investment adviser, insurance, broker-dealer and other registrations, licenses or charters, censures and other regulatory sanctions.
The legal and regulatory requirements applicable to our business are ever evolving and may become more restrictive, which may make compliance with applicable requirements more difficult or expensive or otherwise restrict our ability to conduct our business activities in the manner in which they are now conducted. Our businesses have operated for many years within a legal framework that requires our being able to monitor and comply with a broad range of legal and regulatory developments that affect our activities. However, additional legislation, changes in rules promulgated by self-regulatory organizations or changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and rules, either in the United States or elsewhere, may directly affect our mode of operation and profitability.
The complex regulatory frameworks governing financial institutions, insurance companies, insurance distributors and their respective holding companies and subsidiaries, as well as those with investments in them, are very detailed and technical. Accordingly, the discussion below is general in nature, does not purport to be complete and is current only as of the date of this report.
Financial Services Regulation
Our financial services businesses, subsidiaries and/or affiliates are regulated under, among others, the Investment Advisers Act; the Investment Company Act; the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”); the EU Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive; the EU Markets in Financial Instruments Directive; the Regulation on OTC Derivatives, Central Counterparties and Trade Repositories; the Financial Stability Oversight Council; the Federal Reserve; the SEC; FINRA; the U.S. Department of Labor; the Internal Revenue Service; the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency; the Federal Communications Commission; banking and financial regulators in the European Union, Germany, Slovenia and the United Kingdom; as well as rules and regulations over CLO risk retention, real estate investment trusts, broker-dealers, “over the counter” derivatives markets, commodity pool operators, commodity trading advisors, gaming companies and natural resources companies.
Regulation under the Investment Advisers Act. We conduct our advisory business through our investment adviser subsidiaries, including Apollo Capital Management, L.P., Apollo Investment Management, L.P., Apollo Credit Management, LLC, ARIS Management, LLC, Apollo Capital Credit Adviser, LLC and Apollo Real Estate Fund Adviser, LLC, each of which is registered as an investment adviser with the SEC under the Investment Advisers Act. Apollo Capital Management, L.P. has a number of relying advisers that operate a single advisory business and rely on umbrella registration to be deemed registered as an investment adviser with the SEC. All of our SEC-registered investment advisers are subject to the requirements and regulations of the Investment Advisers Act.
Regulation as a Broker-Dealer. Apollo Global Securities, LLC (“AGS”) and Griffin Capital Securities, LLC (“GCS”), each of which is a subsidiary of Apollo, are registered as broker-dealers with the SEC and in the U.S. states and territories and are members of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”). Broker-dealers are subject to regulations that cover
all aspects of the securities business, including, among other things, the implementation of a supervisory control system and effective compliance program, advertising and sales practices, conduct of and compensation in connection with public securities offerings, maintenance of adequate net capital, financial reporting, record keeping, and the conduct and qualifications of directors, officers, employees and other associated persons. State securities regulators also have regulatory oversight authority over AGS and GCS. In addition, one of our non-U.S. subsidiaries, Apollo Capital Solutions Europe B.V., is regulated under relevant broker-dealer regulations in the Netherlands. See “—Regulated Entities Outside of the U.S.” below.
Regulation as a Commodity Pool Operator and Commodity Trading Advisor. Certain investment activities entered into by Apollo managers may subject those managers to provisions of the Commodities Exchange Act and oversight by the Commodities Futures Trading Commission, including registration as a commodity pool operator or commodity trading advisor. Apollo intends to rely on exemptions from registration when available.
In addition, certain of the funds we manage are registered management investment companies under the Investment Company Act.
We are also subject to laws and regulations governing payments and contributions to public officials or other parties, including restrictions imposed by the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, as well as economic sanctions and export control laws administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, the U.S. Department of Commerce and the U.S. Department of State.
As a result of certain investments of ours and the funds we manage in financial institutions that operate outside of the United States, Apollo is subject to regulatory supervision by international financial regulators, including the European Union, German, Slovenian and U.K. financial regulators and applicable requirements set forth in the relevant banking and consumer finance regulations of such jurisdictions. In certain cases, such regulations impose suitability and conduct standards on the Company and require notice to and in certain instances approval of, the relevant regulatory authority of an intent to increase or decrease holdings in the relevant entity outside of specified thresholds, or other contemplated changes in structure, or transactions. Failure to comply with these applicable requirements may result in a variety of consequences, including fines, administrative measures, suspension of voting rights, mandatory disposal of interests in the regulated entity or other regulatory sanctions.
Our businesses, subsidiaries and affiliates are subject to a wide variety of insurance and insurance holding company system laws and regulations in both the United States and numerous other jurisdictions, including the European Union, Bermuda, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Australia, Singapore, Cayman Islands, Canada, Malaysia and Hong Kong.
Within the United States, laws and regulations that we are subject to generally require each insurance company subsidiary to register with the insurance department in its domiciliary state and to furnish financial and other information about the operations of companies within its holding company system. These regulations also impose restrictions and limitations on the ability of an insurance company subsidiary to pay dividends and make other distributions to its parent company. In addition, transactions between an insurance company and other companies within its holding company system, including sales, loans, investments, reinsurance agreements, tax allocation agreements, management agreements and service agreements, must be on terms that are fair and reasonable and, if material or within a specified category, require prior notice and approval or non-disapproval by the applicable domiciliary state insurance department.
State insurance authorities have broad administrative powers over the insurance business of our insurance company affiliates, including: (1) licensing to transact business; (2) licensing of producers who sell our products; (3) prescribing which assets and liabilities are to be considered in determining statutory surplus; (4) regulating premium rates for certain insurance products; (5) approving policy forms and certain related materials; (6) determining whether a reasonable basis exists as to the suitability of the annuity purchase recommendations producers make and, in certain states, that such recommendations are in the best interest of the consumer; (7) regulating unfair trade and claims practices; (8) establishing reserve requirements, solvency standards and minimum capital requirements; (9) regulating the amount of dividends that may be paid in any year; (10) regulating the availability of reinsurance, the terms thereof and the ability of an insurer to take credit on its financial statements for insurance ceded to reinsurers; (11) fixing maximum interest rates on life insurance policy loans, minimum crediting rates on accumulation
products and minimum allowable surrender values; (12) regulating the type, amounts and valuations of investments permitted; (13) setting parameters for transactions with affiliates; and (14) regulating certain other matters.
All states have insurance laws that require regulatory approval of a direct or indirect change of control of an insurer, which would include a change of control of its holding company. Such laws prevent any person from acquiring direct or indirect control of any of our U.S. insurance subsidiaries or their holding companies unless that person has filed a statement with specified information with the commissioner, superintendent or director of the insurance department of the applicable state (each, a “Commissioner”) and has obtained the Commissioner’s prior approval. Under such state statutes, acquiring 10% or more of a voting interest in an insurer or its parent company is presumptively considered a change of control, although such presumption may be rebutted. Accordingly, any person who acquires 10% or more of a voting interest in a direct or indirect parent of any of our U.S. insurance subsidiaries without the prior approval of the Commissioner of the applicable state will be in violation of the applicable state’s law and may be subject to injunctive action requiring the disposition or seizure of those securities by the Commissioner or prohibiting the voting of those securities and/or to other actions determined by the Commissioner. Further, a willful violation of these laws is punishable in each state as a criminal offense.
In addition, state insurance holding company laws require any controlling person of a U.S. insurer seeking to divest its controlling interest in the insurer to file with the relevant Commissioner a confidential notice of the proposed divestiture at least thirty days prior to the cessation of control (unless a person acquiring control from the divesting party has filed notice of the proposed acquisition of control with the Commissioner). After receipt of the notice, the Commissioner must determine whether the parties seeking to divest or to acquire a controlling interest will be required to file for or obtain approval of the transaction. These laws may discourage potential acquisition proposals and may delay, deter or prevent an acquisition of control of a direct or indirect parent of any of our U.S. insurance subsidiaries (in particular through an unsolicited transaction), even if the shareholders of such parent consider such transaction to be desirable.
The operations of our insurance subsidiaries and branches operating outside the United States are subject to the local regulatory and supervisory schemes in the jurisdictions in which they operate, which vary widely from country to country; however, regulators typically grant licenses to operate and control an insurance business in that jurisdiction. In general, insurance regulators in these jurisdictions have the administrative power to supervise the registration of agents, regulation of product features and product approvals, asset allocation, minimum capital requirements, solvency and reserves, policyholder liabilities, and investments. Regulatory authorities may also regulate affiliations with other financial institutions, shareholder structures and may impose restrictions on declaring dividends and the ability to effect certain capital transactions, and many jurisdictions require insurance companies to participate in policyholder protection schemes.
Many of the insurance regulatory frameworks that govern our insurance entities operating outside the United States require the prior consent of the applicable regulator in such jurisdictions before (i) any person can become a “controller”/“qualifying holder” or increase its direct or indirect holding in any regulated company, or over the parent undertaking of any such regulated company or (ii) any increase of an existing holding that would result in a person reaching the applicable thresholds of the jurisdiction (e.g., 10%, 20%, 30% or 33% and 50%). In addition, certain regulators require entities to discuss any prospective changes in organizational structure of which they are aware with the appropriate regulator, regardless of whether the controller/qualifying holder or the proposed controller/qualifying holder proposes to submit a change in control application. Breach of these requirements to notify various regulators of a decision to acquire or increase control/holding, or of the requirement to obtain approval before completing the relevant control/qualifying holding transaction may in some jurisdictions be a criminal offense attracting potentially unlimited fines. Regulators can also seek other remedies, including suspension of voting rights or having the purported acquisition annulled.
In particular, the Bermuda Monetary Authority (the “BMA”), which regulates Athene, Athora and Catalina, maintains supervision over the “controllers” of all registered insurers in Bermuda. For these purposes, a “controller” includes (1) the managing director of the registered insurer or its parent company, (2) the chief executive of the registered insurer or of its parent company, (3) a shareholder controller, and (4) any person in accordance with whose directions or instructions the directors of the registered insurer or its parent company are accustomed to act.
The definition of shareholder controller is set out in the Bermuda Insurance Act 1978 (the “Bermuda Insurance Act”) but generally refers to (1) a person who holds 10% or more of the shares carrying rights to vote at a shareholders’ meeting of the registered insurer or its parent company, (2) a person who is entitled to exercise 10% or more of the voting power at any shareholders’ meeting of such registered insurer or its parent company or (3) a person who is able to exercise significant
influence over the management of the registered insurer or its parent company by virtue of its shareholding or its entitlement to exercise, or control the exercise of, the voting power at any shareholders’ meeting.
Under the Bermuda Insurance Act, shareholder controller ownership is defined as follows:
|Actual Shareholder Controller Voting Power||Defined Shareholder Controller Voting Power|
|10% or more but less than 20%||10%|
|20% or more but less than 33%||20%|
|33% or more but less than 50%||33%|
|50% or more||50%|
Where the shares of a registered insurer, or the shares of its parent company, are traded on a recognized stock exchange, and such shareholder becomes a 10%, 20%, 33%, or 50% shareholder controller of the insurer, that shareholder shall, within 45 days, notify the BMA in writing that such shareholder has become, or as a result of a disposition ceased to be, a controller of any such category.
Any person or entity who contravenes the Bermuda Insurance Act by failing to give notice or knowingly becoming a controller of any description before the required 45 days has elapsed is guilty of an offense under Bermuda law and liable to a fine of $25,000 on summary conviction.
The BMA may file a notice of objection to any person or entity who has become a controller of any category when it appears that such person or entity is not, or is no longer, fit and proper to be a controller of the registered insurer. Before issuing a notice of objection, the BMA is required to serve upon the person or entity concerned a preliminary written notice stating the BMA’s intention to issue formal notice of objection. Upon receipt of the preliminary written notice, the person or entity served may, within 28 days, file written representations with the BMA which shall be taken into account by the BMA in making its final determination. Any person or entity who continues to be a controller of any description after having received a notice of objection is guilty of an offense and liable on summary conviction to a fine of $25,000 (and a continuing fine of $500 per day for each day that the offense is continuing) or, if convicted on indictment, to a fine of $100,000 and/or 2 years in prison.
The Bermuda Insurance Act regulates the insurance business of our Bermuda reinsurance subsidiaries, and provides that no person may carry on any insurance business in or from within Bermuda unless registered as an insurer under such act by the BMA. The BMA is required by the Bermuda Insurance Act to determine whether an applicant is a fit and proper body to be engaged in the insurance business and, in particular, whether it has, or has available to it, adequate knowledge and expertise to operate an insurance business. The continued registration of an insurer is subject to the insurer complying with the terms of its registration and such other conditions as the BMA may impose from time to time. The Bermuda Insurance Act also grants to the BMA powers to supervise, investigate and intervene in the affairs of insurers. The Bermuda Insurance Act imposes on Bermuda insurers solvency standards, as well as auditing and reporting requirements.
On December 8, 2022, the BMA issued a notice that it intends to make enhancements to Bermuda’s regulatory regime for insurers, and on February 24, 2023, the BMA issued a consultation paper on the enhancements it is considering. The consultation period is expected to continue for several months and possibly through the end of 2023. The enhancements are aimed at ensuring that the regime continues to remain fit for purpose, in line with international standards and keeps pace with market developments. In addition to potential enhancements to technical provisions and computation of the Bermuda Solvency Capital Requirement, the BMA is seeking to strengthen supervisory cooperation and exchange of information and increased publication of regulatory information to further develop good governance and risk management practices, transparency, and market discipline.
In the U.K., Apollo is considered the controller of certain insurance company (or equivalent) subsidiaries of Catalina Holdings (Bermuda) Ltd. (“Catalina”) and Aspen Insurance Holdings Limited (“Aspen”), including Catalina London Limited, Catalina Worthing Insurance Limited, AGF Insurance Limited, Aspen Insurance UK Limited (“Aspen U.K.”), which is domiciled in the United Kingdom and operates regulated branches in Australia, Canada, Singapore, Switzerland, and Aspen Managing Agency Limited, the Lloyd’s managing agent of Syndicate 4711, which has its underwriting capacity provided by Aspen’s subsidiary Aspen Underwriting Limited, a Lloyd’s corporate member. In addition, Catalina Services UK Limited and Aspen U.K. Syndicate Services Limited are also domiciled in the United Kingdom and provide insurance distribution services for purposes of certain U.K. insurance regulations.
In Ireland, Apollo is deemed to hold an indirect qualifying holding in each of Catalina Insurance Ireland DAC, which is Catalina’s wholly-owned Irish subsidiary insurance undertaking (e.g., insurance company), and Athora Ireland plc, which is a direct wholly-owned subsidiary of Athora Life Re Ltd. An indirect qualifying holding in Athora Ireland Services Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Athora, is also attributed to Apollo via Apollo’s indirect interest in Athora.
Apollo is deemed to hold an indirect qualifying holding in Athora Deutschland Verwaltungs GmbH, Athora Deutschland Holding GmbH & Co. KG, Athora Deutschland GmbH, Athora Lebensversicherung AG and Athora Pensionskasse AG, which are either German regulated insurance undertakings or German insurance holding companies.
Apollo is deemed to hold an indirect qualifying holding in Athora Belgium S.A./N.V. (“Athora Belgium”), which is a Belgian licensed insurance and reinsurance undertaking. In addition, some of Athora Belgium’s subsidiaries are registered with the Belgian regulator as insurance brokers and are subject to supervision by the Belgian regulator as regards their insurance distribution activities.
Apollo is deemed to hold an indirect qualifying holding in Athora Netherlands N.V. (formerly known as: VIVAT N.V.), Proteq Levensverzekeringen N.V., and SRLEV N.V., which are either Dutch regulated insurance undertakings or a Dutch insurance holding company, and Zwitserleven PPI N.V., which is a Dutch premium pension institution.
Apollo holds an indirect stake in Challenger Life Company Limited which is an Australian regulated life insurance company and a wholly owned subsidiary of Challenger Limited, an Australian listed company. Challenger Limited also has certain regulated subsidiaries outside of Australia.
Aspen also carries on insurance business through its Singapore Lloyd’s service company. Additionally, Catalina carries on insurance business through its Singapore-domiciled subsidiary Asia Capital Reinsurance Group Pte. Ltd., which in turn operates through its subsidiaries in Malaysia and through its branch office in Hong Kong.
Regulation of an Insurance Group
Many insurers, including certain of our subsidiaries, operate within a group structure with two or more affiliated persons, one or more of which is an insurer. U.S. state and international regulators have developed group supervisory frameworks in order to provide regulators with the ability to scrutinize the activities of an insurance group and assess its potential impact on individual insurers within the group.
A group supervisor may perform a number of supervisory functions, including: (1) coordinating the gathering and dissemination of relevant or essential information in both the ordinary course and emergency situations, including the dissemination of information that is of importance for the supervisory activities of other competent authorities; (2) carrying out supervisory reviews and assessments of the insurance group; (3) carrying out assessments of the insurance group’s compliance with the rules on solvency, risk concentration, intra-group transactions and good governance procedures; (4) planning and coordinating supervisory activities in respect of the insurance group, in both the ordinary course and in emergency situations through regular meetings held at least annually (or by other appropriate means) with other competent authorities; (5) coordinating enforcement actions that may need to be taken against the insurance group or any of its members; and (6) planning and coordinating meetings of colleges of supervisors (consisting of insurance regulators) in order to facilitate the carrying out of the functions described above.
The group supervisor may impose certain requirements on the insurance group, including to make provision for, among other things: (1) assessing the financial situation and the solvency position of the insurance group and/or its members and (2) regulating intra-group transactions, risk concentration, governance procedures, risk management and regulatory reporting and disclosure. Many of these requirements are still being developed in regulatory frameworks and have not yet been applied in substance to us or our affiliates or, to the extent they have been applied, remain subject to modification as part of larger prudential regulatory initiatives.
Government agencies and insurance standard setters in the U.S. and worldwide have become increasingly interested in potential risks posed by the insurance industry as a whole, and to commercial and financial activities and systems in general, as indicated by the development of the Common Framework for the Supervision of Internationally Active Insurance Groups (“ComFrame”), as adopted by the International Association of Insurance Supervisors (“IAIS”). ComFrame is applicable to entities that meet the IAIS’ criteria for internationally active insurance groups (“IAIGs”) and that are so designated by their group-wide supervisor
and includes a group capital requirement in addition to the current legal entity capital requirements and any group capital requirements imposed by relevant insurance laws and regulations. We expect that we and/or one or more of our affiliates will be designated as an IAIG in 2023 and look forward to working constructively with our regulators to enhance the regulatory framework applied globally to, among others, companies that assist clients in planning and implementing solutions for their retirement.
Each of our insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries is subject to regulatory capital requirements based upon the laws and regulations of its jurisdiction of incorporation. Regulators of each jurisdiction in which we operate have discretionary authority in connection with our insurance and reinsurance subsidiaries’ continued licensing to limit or prohibit sales to policyholders within their respective jurisdiction or to restrict continued operation of insurers or reinsurers domiciled in their respective jurisdiction if, in their judgment, such entities have not maintained the required level of minimum surplus or capital or that the further transaction of business would be hazardous to policyholders or reinsurance counterparties.
Restrictions on Dividends and Other Distributions
Our U.S. insurance subsidiaries are also subject to restrictions on the payment of dividends. Any proposed dividend in excess of the amount permitted by law is considered an extraordinary dividend or extraordinary distribution and may not be paid until it has been approved, or a 30-day waiting period has passed during which it has not been disapproved, by the Commissioner. In addition, entities that are regulated insurers are strictly prohibited from declaring or paying any dividends unless certain financial conditions are met or prior approval from the BMA is received.
Consumer Protection Laws and Privacy and Data Security Regulation
Federal and state consumer protection laws affect our operations. As part of the Dodd-Frank Act, Congress established the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau to supervise and regulate institutions that provide certain financial products and services to consumers. In addition, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 implemented fundamental changes in the regulation of the financial services industry in the United States and includes privacy requirements for financial institutions, including obligations to protect and safeguard consumers’ nonpublic personal information and records, and limitations on the re-disclosure and re-use of such information.
In addition to federal and other financial institution-specific privacy laws and regulations, an increasing number of states are considering and passing comprehensive privacy legislation. The issues surrounding data security and the safeguarding of consumers’ protected information are under increasing regulatory scrutiny by state and federal regulators, particularly in light of the number and severity of recent U.S. companies’ data breaches.
Regulated Entities Outside of the U.S.
Certain of our subsidiaries and the funds that we manage that operate in jurisdictions outside of the United States are licensed by or have obtained authorizations to operate in their respective jurisdictions outside of the United States, and as a result are regulated by various international regulators and subject to applicable regulation. These registrations, licenses or authorizations relate to providing investment advice, discretionary investment management, arranging deals, marketing securities, capital markets activities and other regulated activities. Failure to comply with the laws and regulations governing these subsidiaries that have been registered, licensed or authorized could expose us to liability and/or damage our reputation.
Outside of the U.S., our subsidiaries and the funds that we manage, including Apollo Management International LLP, Apollo Credit Management International Limited, Apollo Europe Limited, Mirabella Malta Advisers Limited, Apollo Asset Management Europe LLP, Apollo Asset Management Europe PC LLP, Apollo Investment Management Europe LLP, Apollo Investment Management Europe (Luxembourg) S.à r.l., Apollo Capital Solutions Europe B.V., Apollo Advisors (Mauritius) Ltd, AION Capital Management Limited, Apollo Management Singapore Pte. Ltd., Apollo Management Singapore Pte. Ltd., Apollo Management Asia Pacific Limited, Apollo Management Japan Limited, PK AirFinance Japan Godo Kaisha and PK AIR 1 JPN Godo Kaisha, are subject to regulation in the European Union, the United Kingdom, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Malta, India, Mauritius, Singapore, Australia, Hong Kong and Japan.
Other Regulatory Considerations. Certain of our businesses are subject to compliance with laws and regulations of U.S. federal and state governments, non-U.S. governments, their respective agencies and/or various self-regulatory organizations or
exchanges relating to, among other things, the privacy of client information, and any failure to comply with these regulations could expose us to liability and/or reputational damage.
Rigorous legal and compliance analysis of our businesses and investments is important to our culture. We strive to maintain a culture of compliance through the use of policies and procedures, such as our code of ethics, compliance systems, communication of compliance guidance and employee education and training. We have a compliance group that monitors our compliance with the regulatory requirements to which we are subject and manages our compliance policies and procedures. Our Chief Compliance Officer supervises our compliance group, which is responsible for addressing all regulatory and compliance matters that affect our activities. Our compliance policies and procedures address a variety of regulatory and compliance risks such as the handling of material non-public information, personal securities trading, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering (including know-your-customer controls), valuation of investments on a fund-specific basis, document retention, potential conflicts of interest and the allocation of investment opportunities.
We generally operate without information barriers between our asset management businesses. In an effort to manage possible risks resulting from our decision not to implement these barriers, our compliance personnel maintain a list of issuers for which we have access to material, non-public information and whose securities our funds and investment professionals are not permitted to trade. We could in the future decide that it is advisable to establish information barriers, particularly as our business expands and diversifies. In such event our ability to operate as an integrated platform will be restricted.
Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act are made available free of charge on or through our website at www.apollo.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The information on our website is not, and shall not be deemed to be, part of this report or incorporated into any other filings we make with the SEC. The reports and the other documents we file with the SEC are available on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
From time to time, we may use our website as a channel of distribution of material information. Financial and other material information regarding the Company is routinely posted on and accessible at www.apollo.com.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
The following risk factors and other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K should be carefully considered. The occurrence of any of the following risks or of unknown risks and uncertainties may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. As used herein, references to our “asset management business” refer to the historical Apollo business, whereas references to our “retirement services business” refer to the historical Athene business.
Difficult political, market or economic conditions may adversely affect our businesses in many ways which could materially reduce our revenue, net income and cash flow and adversely affect our financial prospects and condition.
Our businesses are materially affected by conditions in the political environment and financial markets and economic conditions throughout the world, such as changes in interest rates, availability of credit, inflation rates, economic uncertainty, changes in laws (including laws relating to taxation), governmental policy and regulatory reform, changes in trade policy, tariffs and trade sanctions on goods, trade wars, the planned discontinuation of LIBOR, U.S.-China relations, the withdrawal of the U.K. from the EU single market and customs union, imposition or maintenance of trade barriers, labor shortages, supply chain disruptions, economic, political, fiscal and/or other developments in or affecting Eurozone countries, commodity prices, currency exchange rates and controls, wars, other national and international political circumstances (including terrorist acts or security operations), natural disasters, climate change, pandemics or other severe public health crises and other events outside of our control.
Both domestic and international markets experienced significant inflationary pressures in fiscal year 2022 and inflation rates in the U.S., as well as in other countries in which we operate, are currently expected to continue at elevated levels for the near term. In addition, the Federal Reserve in the U.S. and central banks in various other countries have raised, and may again raise interest rates in response to concerns about inflation, which, coupled with reduced government spending and volatility in financial markets, may have the effect of further increasing economic uncertainty and heightening these risks. Interest rate
increases or other government actions taken to reduce inflation could also result in recessionary pressures in many parts of the world. Interest rate risk poses a significant market risk to us as a result of interest rate-sensitive assets (e.g., fixed income assets) and liabilities (e.g., fixed deferred and immediate annuities) held by us and by the portfolio companies of the funds we manage. Certain portfolio companies of the funds we manage may also be impacted by inflation. If such portfolio companies are unable to pass any increases in their costs along to their customers, it could adversely affect their results and their ability to pay interest and principal on their loans, particularly if interest rates rise further in response to inflation. In addition, any projected future decreases in such portfolio companies’ operating results due to inflation could adversely impact the fair value of those investments. Any decreases in the fair value of our and our funds’ investments could result in future unrealized losses and therefore reduce our net assets resulting from operations.
The Russian invasion of Ukraine has also increased global economic and political uncertainty. Furthermore, governments in the U.S., U.K., and EU have each imposed export controls on certain products and financial and economic sanctions on certain industry sectors and parties in Russia, and additional controls and sanctions could be enacted in the future. We are continuing to actively monitor the situation in Russia and Ukraine and assess its impact on our business and the business and operations of the portfolio companies of the funds we manage (particularly the impact on portfolio companies that operate in industries such as chemicals, oil and gas and aviation). We have no significant exposure to Russia or Ukraine and as such, to date, the conflict has not had a material impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations. However, it is possible that the conflict in Ukraine may escalate or expand, and the scope, extent and duration of the military action, current or future sanctions and resulting market and geopolitical disruptions could be significant. The acceleration of a global energy crisis, including as a result of restrictions on Russia's energy exports could similarly have an adverse impact on certain of the geographies where we do business and certain business and operations of the portfolio companies of the funds we manage. We cannot predict the impact the conflict may have on the global economy or our business, financial condition and operations in the future. The Russia and Ukraine conflict may also heighten the impact of other risks described herein.
Additionally, investing in securities of issuers organized or based outside the U.S. and operating outside the U.S. may also expose us to increased compliance risks, as well as higher compliance costs to comply with U.S. and non-U.S. anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and sanctions laws and regulations. These factors are outside our control and may affect the level and volatility of securities prices and the liquidity and the value of investments, and we may not be able to or may choose not to manage our exposure to these conditions.
Volatility caused by political, market or economic conditions can materially hinder the initiation of new, large-sized transactions for funds in our asset management business and, together with volatility in valuations of equity and debt securities, may adversely impact our operating results. It may also increase the risk that cash flows generated from our operations or the collateral underlying the structured products we own may differ from our expectations in timing or amount. In addition, many of our classes of investments, but in particular our alternative investments, may produce investment income that fluctuates significantly from period to period. Any event reducing the estimated fair value of these securities, other than on a temporary basis, could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows. Volatility and general economic trends are also likely to impact the performance of portfolio companies in many industries, particularly industries that are more affected by changes in consumer demand, such as the packaging, manufacturing, chemical and refining industries, as well as the travel and leisure, gaming and real estate industries. Our performance, and the performance of the funds we manage, may be adversely affected to the extent portfolio companies in these industries experience adverse performance or additional pressure due to downward trends. There is also a risk of both sector-specific and broad-based corrections and/or downturns in the equity and/or credit markets. Our profitability may also be adversely affected by our fixed costs and the possibility that we would be unable to scale back other costs, within a time frame sufficient to match any further decreases in net income or increases in net losses relating to changes in market and economic conditions.
Moreover, our retirement services business is materially affected by conditions in the capital markets and the U.S. economy generally, as well as by the global economy. Actual or perceived stressed conditions, volatility and disruptions in financial asset classes or various capital and credit markets can have an adverse effect on our retirement services business, both because such conditions may decrease the returns on, and value of, its investment portfolio and because its benefit and claim liabilities are sensitive to changing market factors. In times of economic hardship, the policyholders of our retirement services business may choose to defer paying insurance premiums, stop paying insurance premiums altogether or surrender their policies. In addition, actual or perceived difficult conditions in the capital markets may discourage individuals from making investment decisions and purchasing our retirement services products.
We are subject to risks associated with public health crises, such as pandemics and epidemics, including the COVID-19 pandemic which has caused severe disruptions in the U.S. and global economy and could continue to impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to risks associated with public health crises, such as pandemics and epidemics, including the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic and the responses to the pandemic have adversely impacted global commercial activity and contributed to significant volatility in financial markets. It is uncertain how long this volatility in the financial markets created by the COVID-19 pandemic will continue. While many countries around the world have removed or reduced the restrictions taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the emergence of new variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus may result in new governmental lockdowns, quarantine requirements or other restrictions to slow the spread of the virus. The effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on the economy and the public have been severe and have exacerbated, and may continue to exacerbate, other pre-existing political, social, economic, market and financial risks.
The emergence of new variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the extended duration of the COVID-19 pandemic could adversely affect our business in a number of ways, including by adversely impacting the valuations of the investments made by our asset management and retirement services businesses, which are generally correlated to the performance of the relevant equity and debt markets; increasing volatility in the financial markets; preventing us from capitalizing on certain market opportunities; causing prolonged asset price inflation and hampering our asset management business’ ability to deploy capital or to deploy capital as profitably; interrupting global or regional supply chains; hurting consumer confidence and economic activity; reducing opportunities for our asset management business to successfully exit existing investments; straining our liquidity, which may impact our credit ratings and limit the availability of future financing; impairing our asset management business’ equity investments and impacting the ability of the portfolio companies of our asset management business to meet their respective financial obligations and comply with existing covenants; increasing the rate at which policyholders of our insurance products withdraw their policies; and reducing our ability to understand and foresee trends and changes in the markets in which we operate.
The scope and duration of any future public health crisis, including the potential emergence of new variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the pace at which government restrictions are imposed and lifted, the scope of additional actions taken to mitigate the spread of disease, global vaccination and booster rates, the speed and extent to which global markets fully recover from the disruptions caused by such a public health crisis, and the impact of these factors on our business, financial condition and results of operations, will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence.
Climate change and regulatory and other efforts to reduce climate change could adversely affect our business.
We and the portfolio companies of the funds we manage face a number of risks associated with climate change, including both transition and physical risks. The transition risks that could impact us and the investments of the funds we manage include those risks related to the impact of U.S. and foreign climate- and environmental, social and governance (“ESG”)-related legislation and regulation, as well as risks arising from climate-related business trends. Moreover, our investments, and the investments of the portfolio companies of the funds we manage, are subject to risks stemming from the physical impacts of climate change. In particular, climate change may impact asset prices and the value of investments linked to real estate. For example, rising sea levels may lead to decreases in real estate values in coastal areas. We and the funds we manage have significant concentrations of real estate investments and collateral underlying investments linked to real estate in areas of the United States prone to catastrophe, including California, sections of the northeastern U.S., the South Atlantic states and the Gulf Coast.
New climate change-related regulations or interpretations of existing laws may result in enhanced disclosure obligations that could negatively affect us or the investments of the portfolio companies of the funds we manage and also materially increase our regulatory burden. We also face business trend-related climate risks. Certain fund investors are increasingly taking into account ESG factors, including climate risks, in determining whether to invest in the funds we manage. Our reputation and investor relationships could be damaged as a result of our involvement, or the involvement of the funds we manage, in certain industries, portfolio companies or transactions associated with activities perceived to be causing or exacerbating climate change, as well as any decisions we make to continue to conduct or change our activities in response to considerations relating to climate change.
A portion of our revenues, earnings and cash flow is highly variable, which may make it difficult for us to achieve steady earnings growth on a quarterly basis, which may cause the price of our shares to be volatile.
A portion of our revenues, earnings and cash flow is highly variable, primarily due to the fact that performance fees from our asset management business and the transaction, advisory and other fees that we receive, can vary significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year. In addition, the investment returns of most of the funds we manage are volatile. We may also experience fluctuations in our results from quarter to quarter and year to year due to a number of other factors, including changes in the values of investments of the funds we manage, changes in the amount of distributions, dividends or interest paid in respect of investments, changes in our operating expenses, policyholder behavior, the degree to which we encounter competition and general economic and market conditions. Our future results will also be significantly dependent on the success of the larger funds we manage (e.g., Fund VIII, Fund IX and Fund X), changes in the value of which may result in fluctuations in our results. In addition, performance fees from some of the funds we manage are subject to contingent repayment by the general partner if, upon the final distribution, the relevant fund’s general partner has received cumulative performance fees on individual portfolio investments in excess of the amount of performance fees it would be entitled to from the profits calculated for all portfolio investments in the aggregate. Such variability may lead to volatility in the trading price of our shares and cause our results for a particular period not to be indicative of our performance in a future period. It may be difficult for us to achieve steady growth in earnings and cash flow on a quarterly basis, which could in turn lead to large adverse movements in the price of our shares or increased volatility in the price of our shares in general.
The timing of performance fees generated by the funds we manage is uncertain and will contribute to the volatility of our results. Performance fees depend on the performance of the funds we manage. It takes a substantial period of time to identify attractive investment opportunities, to raise all the funds needed to make an investment and then to realize the cash value or other proceeds of an investment through a sale, public offering, recapitalization or other exit. Even if an investment proves to be profitable, it may be several years before any profits can be realized in cash or other proceeds. We cannot predict when, or if, any realization of investments will occur. Generally, if the funds we manage were to have a realization event in a particular quarter or year, it may have a significant impact on our results for that particular quarter or year that may not be replicated in subsequent periods. With respect to a number of credit funds, our performance fees are generally paid annually, semi-annually or quarterly, and the varying frequency of these payments will contribute to the volatility of our revenues and cash flow. Furthermore, we earn these performance fees only if the net asset value of a fund has increased or, in the case of certain funds, increased beyond a particular threshold, which is referred to as a “high water mark.” Such performance fees we earn are therefore dependent on the net asset value of investors’ investments in the fund, which could lead to significant volatility in our results.
We may not be successful in expanding into new investment strategies, markets and businesses, each of which may result in additional risks and uncertainties in our businesses.
We actively consider the opportunistic expansion of our businesses, both geographically and into new investment strategies, and intend, to the extent that market conditions warrant, to grow our businesses by increasing AUM in existing businesses and expanding into new investment strategies, geographic markets, businesses and distribution channels, including the retail channel. We intend to grow our business in the future in part by acquisitions and joint ventures, each of which could require additional cash and equity, systems development and skilled personnel. We may experience challenges identifying, financing, consummating and integrating such acquisitions and transactions. Our organizational documents do not limit us to the asset management and retirement services businesses. Accordingly, we may pursue growth through acquisitions of other investment management companies, acquisitions of critical business partners or other strategic initiatives, including entering into new lines of business.
We may not be successful in any such attempted expansion. Attempts to expand our businesses involve a number of special risks, including the diversion of management’s attention from our core businesses; the disruption of our ongoing businesses; entry into markets or businesses in which we may have limited or no experience; increasing demands on our operational systems and infrastructure; potential increase in investor concentration; enhanced regulatory scrutiny and greater reputational and litigation risk; difficulty in combining or integrating operational and management systems; and the broadening of our geographic footprint, increasing the risks associated with conducting operations in foreign jurisdictions (including regulatory, tax, legal and reputational consequences). Additionally, any expansion of our businesses could result in significant increases in our outstanding indebtedness and debt service requirements, which would increase the risks of investing in our shares, and may adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.
We also may not be successful in identifying new investment strategies or geographic markets that increase our profitability, or in identifying and acquiring new businesses that increase our profitability. We have also entered into strategic partnerships, separately managed accounts and sub-advisory arrangements, which lack the scale of the funds we traditionally manage and are more costly to administer. The prevalence of these accounts may also present conflicts and introduce complexity in the deployment of capital.
Before expanding into new investment strategies, or making any fund investments generally, we conduct due diligence that we deem reasonable and appropriate based on the facts and circumstances applicable to each investment. When conducting due diligence, we may be required to evaluate important and complex issues, including but not limited to those related to business, financial, credit risk, tax, accounting, environmental, legal and regulatory and macroeconomic trends. The due diligence investigation that we will carry out may not reveal or highlight all relevant facts (including fraud) or risks that may be necessary or helpful in evaluating such investment opportunity, including past or current violations of law and related legal exposure, and we may not identify or foresee future developments that could have a material adverse effect on an investment (e.g., technological disruption across an industry).
We operate in highly competitive industries, which could limit our ability to achieve our growth strategies and could materially and adversely affect our businesses, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects.
We operate in highly competitive markets and compete with a large number of investment management firms, private equity, credit and real assets fund sponsors, U.S. and non-U.S. insurance and reinsurance companies, broker-dealers, financial advisors, asset managers and other financial institutions. In particular, our asset management business faces intense competition in the pursuit of outside investors for the funds we manage, and our retirement services business faces intense competition with respect to both the products it offers and the acquisition and block reinsurance transactions it pursues. These competitive pressures may have a material and adverse effect on our growth, business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects.
We depend on certain key personnel and the loss of their services could have a material adverse effect on us.
The success of our businesses depends on the efforts, judgment, business relationships, personal reputations and continued service of our key personnel. The loss of the services of any of our key personnel or damage to their personal reputation could have a material adverse effect on our business. Accordingly, our retention of our key personnel and our success in recruiting additional personnel is crucial to our success. If our key personnel were to join or form a competitor, our business could similarly suffer a material adverse effect. For example, some of the investors in the funds we manage could choose to invest with that competitor, another competitor or not at all, rather than in the funds we manage. We do not carry any “key man” insurance that would provide us with proceeds in the event of the death or disability of any of our key personnel. We may also not succeed in recruiting additional personnel because the market for qualified professionals is extremely competitive. Efforts to retain or attract key personnel may result in significant additional expenses, which could adversely affect our profitability.
In addition, the governing agreements of certain of the funds we manage provide that in the event certain investment professionals and other key personnel fail to devote the requisite time to our businesses, the commitment period will terminate. In some instances, such termination becomes effective only if coupled with a certain percentage in interest of the fund investors or the respective fund advisory board not voting to continue the commitment period. In addition to having a significant negative impact on our revenue, net income and cash flow, the occurrence of such an event with respect to any of the funds we manage would likely result in significant reputational damage to us.
Misconduct by our current and former employees, directors, advisers, third party-service providers or others affiliated with us could harm us by impairing our ability to attract and retain investors and by subjecting us to significant legal liability, regulatory scrutiny and reputational harm.
There is a risk that our employees, directors, advisers, third party-service providers or others affiliated with us could engage, deliberately or recklessly, in misconduct or fraud that creates legal exposure for us and adversely affects our businesses. With respect to our retirement services business, our insurance businesses rely on third-party intermediaries to sell our products and services and we further rely on third-party administrators to administer a portion of our annuity contracts as well as legacy life insurance business. If anyone associated or affiliated with us, or the portfolio companies of the funds we manage, were to engage, or be accused of engaging in illegal or suspicious activities, sexual harassment, racial or gender discrimination, improper use or disclosure of confidential information, fraud, payment or solicitation of bribes, misrepresentation of products
and services or any other type of similar misconduct or violation of other laws and regulations, we could suffer serious harm to our brand, reputation, be subject to penalties or sanctions, face difficulties in raising funds, suffer serious harm to our financial position and current and future business relationships, as well as face potentially significant litigation or investigations.
Fraud, payment or solicitation of bribes and other deceptive practices or other misconduct at the portfolio companies of the funds we manage could similarly subject us to liability and reputational damage and also harm our performance. There are a number of grounds upon which such misconduct at a portfolio company could subject us to criminal and/or civil liability, including on the basis of actual knowledge, willful blindness, or control person liability.
We rely on technology and information systems, many of which are controlled by third-party vendors, to maintain the security of our information and technology networks and to conduct our businesses, and any failures or interruptions of these systems could adversely affect our businesses and results of operations.
We are subject to various risks and costs associated with the collection, handling, storage and transmission of personally identifiable information. In the ordinary course of our business, we collect and store a range of data, including our proprietary business information and intellectual property, and personally identifiable information of our employees, our investors, our retirement services business policyholders and other third parties, in our data centers and on our networks and we rely on technology and information systems to execute, confirm and settle transactions. We rely on a host of information systems and hardware systems for the secure processing, maintenance and transmission of this information, and the unavailability of these systems or the failure of these systems to perform as anticipated for any reason could disrupt our businesses and could result in decreased performance and increased operating costs, causing our businesses and results of operations to suffer.
Although we are not currently aware of any cyberattacks or other incidents that, individually or in the aggregate, have materially affected, or would reasonably be expected to materially affect, our operations or financial condition, there can be no assurance that the various procedures and controls we utilize to mitigate these threats will be sufficient to prevent disruptions to our systems, especially because the cyberattack techniques used change frequently and are not recognized until launched, the full scope of a cyberattack may not be realized until an investigation has been performed and cyberattacks can originate from a wide variety of sources. We rely on industry accepted security measures and technology to securely maintain confidential and proprietary information maintained on our information systems. Although we take protective measures and endeavor to strengthen our computer systems, software, technology assets and networks to prevent and address potential cyberattacks, there can be no assurance that any of these measures will prove effective. Furthermore, delays in the maintenance, updates, upgrading, or patching of our information systems could adversely impact their effectiveness or could expose us, as well as our clients and others who rely upon, or have exposure to, our systems, to security and other risks.
We are also dependent on an increasingly concentrated group of third-party vendors that we do not control for hosting the information systems and hardware systems that are critical to our businesses. We also rely on third-party service providers for certain aspects of our businesses, including for certain information systems, technology and administration of the funds we manage and compliance matters. A disaster, disruption or compromise in technology or infrastructure that supports our businesses, including a disruption involving electronic communications or other services used by us, our vendors or third parties with whom we conduct business, may have an adverse impact on our ability to continue to operate our businesses without interruption which could have a material adverse effect on us. These risks could increase as vendors increasingly offer cloud-based software services rather than software services that can be operated within our own data centers. These risks also increase to the extent we engage in operations outside the U.S. We also rely on data processing systems and the secure processing, storage and transmission of information, including payment and health information. A disruption or compromise of these systems could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, costs related to data security threats or disruptions may not be fully insured or indemnified by other means.
A significant actual or potential theft, loss, corruption, exposure, fraudulent, unauthorized or accidental use or misuse of investor, policyholder, employee or other personally identifiable or proprietary business data, whether by third parties or as a result of employee malfeasance or otherwise, non-compliance with our contractual or other legal obligations regarding such data or intellectual property or a violation of our privacy and security policies with respect to such data could result in significant remediation and other costs, fines, litigation and regulatory actions against us by the U.S. federal and state governments, the EU or other jurisdictions, various regulatory organizations or exchanges, or affected individuals, in addition to significant reputational harm.
Our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and cash flows depend on the accuracy of our management’s assumptions and estimates, and we could experience significant gains or losses if these assumptions and estimates differ significantly from actual results.
We make and rely on certain assumptions and estimates regarding many matters related to our businesses, including valuations, interest rates, investment returns, expenses and operating costs, tax assets and liabilities, tax rates, business mix, surrender activity, mortality and contingent liabilities. We also use these assumptions and estimates to make decisions crucial to our business operations. We also use assumptions and estimates to make decisions about pricing, target returns and expense structures for our insurance subsidiaries’ products and pension group annuity transactions; determining the amount of reserves our retirement services business is required to hold for its policy liabilities; determining the price our retirement services business will pay to acquire or reinsure business; determining the hedging strategies we employ to manage risks to our business and operations; and determining the amount of regulatory and rating agency capital that our insurance subsidiaries must hold to support their businesses. Similarly, our management teams make similar assumptions and estimates in planning and measuring the performance of our asset management business. In addition, certain investments and other assets and liabilities of our asset management business and our retirement services business must be, or at our election are, measured at fair value the determination of which involves the use of various assumptions and estimates and considerable judgment. The factors influencing these various assumptions and estimates cannot be calculated or predicted with certainty, and if our assumptions and estimates differ significantly from actual outcomes and results, our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and cash flows may be materially and adversely affected.
Many of the funds we manage invest in illiquid assets and many of the investments of our retirement services business are relatively illiquid and we may fail to realize profits from these assets for a considerable period of time, or lose some or all of the principal amount we invest in these assets if we are required to sell our invested assets at a loss at inopportune times or in response to changes in applicable rules and regulations.
Many of the funds we manage invest in securities or other financial instruments that are not publicly traded or are otherwise viewed as “illiquid.” In many cases, the funds we manage may be prohibited by contract or by applicable securities laws from selling such securities for a period of time. The ability of many funds, particularly the private equity funds, to dispose of investments is heavily dependent on the public equity markets. Furthermore, large holdings even of publicly traded securities can often be disposed of only over a substantial period of time, exposing the investment returns to risks of downward movement in market prices during the disposition period. Accordingly, the funds we manage may be forced, under certain conditions, to sell securities at a loss.
In addition, many investments by our retirement services business are in securities that are not publicly traded or that otherwise lack liquidity, such as its privately placed fixed maturity securities, below investment grade securities, investments in mortgage loans and alternative investments. These relatively illiquid types of investments are recorded at fair value. If a material liquidity demand is triggered and we are unable to satisfy the demand with the sources of liquidity available to us, our retirement services business could be forced to sell certain of its assets and there can be no assurance that it would be able to sell them for the values at which such assets are recorded and it might be forced to sell them at significantly lower prices. In many cases, our retirement services business may also be prohibited by contract or applicable securities laws from selling such securities for a period of time. Thus, it may be impossible or costly to liquidate positions rapidly in order to meet unexpected withdrawal or recapture obligations. This potential mismatch between the liquidity of assets and liabilities could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Further, governmental and regulatory authorities periodically review legislative and regulatory initiatives, and may promulgate new or revised, or adopt changes in the interpretation and enforcement of existing, rules and regulations at any time that may impact our investments. For example, Rule 15c2-11 under the Exchange Act governs the submission of quotes into quotation systems by broker-dealers and has historically been applied to the over-the-counter equity markets. However, the SEC recently stated that it intends to apply the rule to fixed income markets, potentially restricting the ability of market participants to publish quotations for applicable fixed income securities after January 4, 2025. Such changes in regulatory requirements could disrupt market liquidity, make it more difficult for us to source and invest in attractive private investments, and cause securities that are not publicly traded to lose value, any of which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We rely on the debt financing markets for the operation of our business.
We rely on the debt financing markets for the operation of our business. To the extent that markets render debt financing difficult to obtain, refinance or extend, or more expensive, this may have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and cash flows.
Many of the funds we manage utilize subscription lines of credit to fund operations and investments, including their equity contributions in a portfolio company. Some of these are also intended as a source of longer-term borrowings for investments by the relevant funds. In other cases, some funds make investments through the use of net asset value-based fund finance facilities or similar financing arrangements, margin loans or other derivative financing arrangements that are backed by the fund’s investment portfolio. The interest expense and other costs incurred in connection with such indebtedness may not be recovered by appreciation in the assets purchased or carried, and will be lost, and the timing and magnitude of such losses may be accelerated or exacerbated in the event of a decline in the market value of such assets. Gains realized with borrowed funds may cause the fund’s net asset value to increase at a faster rate than would be the case without borrowings. However, if investment results fail to cover the cost of borrowings, the fund’s net asset value could also decrease faster than if there had been no borrowings. The inability to obtain such financing on attractive terms may impact the ability of the funds we manage to achieve targeted rates of return.
Additionally, certain investments by the funds we manage rely heavily on the use of leverage. For example, in many of the private equity fund investments, indebtedness may constitute 70% or more of a portfolio company’s total debt and equity capitalization. The absence of available sources of senior debt financing for extended periods of time could materially and adversely affect the funds we manage. In the event that funds we manage are unable to obtain committed debt financing for potential investments, including acquisitions, or can only obtain debt at an increased interest rate or otherwise on unfavorable terms, such funds may have difficulty completing otherwise profitable investments or may generate profits that are lower than would otherwise be the case, either of which could lead to a decrease in the investment income earned by us. Any failure by lenders to provide previously committed financing can also expose us to potential claims by counterparties with which funds we manage have contracted to effectuate an investment transaction (i.e., sellers of businesses that funds we manage may have contracted to purchase). In addition, to the extent that the current markets make it difficult or impossible for a portfolio company to refinance debt that is maturing in the near term, it may face substantial doubt as to its status as a going concern (which may result in an event of default under various agreements) or it may be unable to repay such debt at maturity and be forced to sell assets, undergo a recapitalization or seek bankruptcy protection. Furthermore, investments in highly leveraged entities are inherently more sensitive to declines in revenues, increases in expenses and interest rates and adverse economic, market and industry developments. As a result, the risk of loss associated with a leveraged entity is generally greater than for companies with comparatively less debt.
In addition, our retirement services business relies on access to lending and debt markets to provide capital and liquidity. Changes in debt financing markets may impact our retirement services business’ access to capital and liquidity. Calculations of required insurance capital may move with market movements and result in greater capital needs during economic downturns. Our retirement services business may also need additional liquidity to pay insurance liabilities in excess of its assumptions due to market impacts on policyholder behavior.
Changes to the method of determining the LIBOR or the selection of a replacement for LIBOR may affect the value of investments held by or due to us or the funds we manage and could affect our results of operations and financial results.
As a result of the expected discontinuation of certain unsecured benchmark interest rates, including LIBOR and other Interbank Offered Rates (“IBORs”), regulators and market participants in various jurisdictions have been working to identify alternative reference rates that are compliant with the International Organization of Securities Commission’s standards for transaction-based benchmarks. In the U.S., the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a group of market and official sector participants, identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) as its recommended alternative benchmark rate. Other alternative reference rates have been recommended in other jurisdictions.
A large number of IBOR-referenced contracts are held by or due to us or funds we manage. Furthermore, a significant number of portfolio companies of the funds we manage are borrowers of LIBOR-linked debt obligations, such as LIBOR-based credit agreements and floating rate notes. Transition from LIBOR to SOFR or to another reference rate may result in an increase or a decrease of the overall borrowing cost for us (including our retirement services business), the funds we manage and their portfolio companies. Even if the overall borrowing cost decreases, any savings that we or the funds we manage realize from such decrease could be offset partially or entirely by lower overall interest income received from certain assets. In addition, the
transition from LIBOR to another reference rate could result in financial market disruption and significant increases or volatility in risk-free benchmark rates. Should such disruption occur, it may adversely affect, among other things, (1) the trading market for LIBOR-based securities, including those held in our investment portfolio and (2) the market for derivative instruments, including those that we use to achieve our hedging objectives. The most significant LIBOR exposure area for our retirement services business as it relates to legacy contracts is its portfolio of floating rate investments tied to LIBOR. As a result, the transition from LIBOR could have a direct or indirect adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and share price.
Risks Relating to Our Asset Management Business
We may experience a decline in revenue from our asset management business.
In our asset management business, we derive revenues from:
•capital committed to the funds, invested by the funds, or the net asset value of the funds;
•management fees, which are based generally on the amount of capital committed or invested in the funds we manage;
•in connection with services relating to investments by the funds we manage, fees earned or otherwise collected by one or more service providers affiliated with us;
•performance fees, based on the performance of the funds we manage; and
•investment income from our investments, including as general partner.
If a fund we manage performs poorly, we will receive little or no performance fees with regard to the fund and little income or possibly losses from any principal investment in the fund. Furthermore, if, as a result of poor performance of later investments in a fund’s life, the fund does not achieve total investment returns that exceed a specified investment return threshold for the life of the fund, we could be obligated to repay the amount by which performance fees that were previously distributed to us exceeds amounts to which we are ultimately entitled. Several of the funds we manage may go into clawback. There can be no assurance that we will not incur a clawback repayment obligation in the future.
A variety of fees that we earn, such as origination, syndication, arranger, placement, sourcing, structuring and other similar financing-related fees, are driven in part by the pace at which the funds we manage commit to make or make investments. Any decline in the pace at which the funds we manage make investments would reduce our origination, syndication, arranger, structuring and other similar financing-related fees and could make it more difficult for us to raise capital. Likewise, any increase in the pace at which the funds we manage exit investments would reduce origination, syndication, arranger, structuring and other similar financing-related fees. In addition, we will experience a decrease in the amount of fee revenue if we share with fund investors a larger portion, or all, of certain types of fees generated by funds’ investments, such as management consulting fees and merger and acquisition transaction advisory fees, or if expenses arising from the operation of the funds we manage are borne by us alone, rather than the funds.
Additionally, certain of our subsidiaries perform underwriting, syndicating and securities placement services for the funds we manage and their portfolio companies, as well as for investments made by our retirement services business and for third parties. Our ability to maintain or grow these services, and the related fees we earn therefrom, depends on a number of factors, some of which are outside our control.
The Former Managing Partners, Contributing Partners and certain current and former investment professionals have personally guaranteed, subject to certain limitations, general partner clawback obligations, and we have agreed to indemnify them for such amounts attributed to interests they previously contributed or sold to the Apollo Operating Group.
In each instance, a decrease in the fees we receive from the funds we manage and other operating activities, will lead to a decrease in our revenues and may have a materially adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
We depend on investors in the funds we manage for the continued success of our asset management business.
It could become increasingly difficult for the funds we manage to raise capital as funds compete for investments from a limited number of qualified investors. Without the participation of investors, the funds we manage will not be successful in consummating their capital-raising efforts, or they may consummate them at investment levels lower than those currently anticipated.
Certain institutional investors have publicly criticized compensation arrangements, including management, transaction and advisory fees. Although we have no obligation to modify any fees or other terms with respect to the funds we manage, we experience pressure to do so. In addition, certain institutional investors, including sovereign wealth funds and public pension funds, continue to demonstrate an increased preference for alternatives to the traditional investment fund structure, such as managed accounts, specialized funds and co-investment vehicles. Even though we have entered into such strategic arrangements, there can be no assurance that such alternatives will be as profitable to us as traditional investment fund structures. While we have historically competed primarily on the performance of the funds we manage, and not on the level of our management fees or performance fees relative to those of our competitors, there is a risk that management fees and performance fees in the alternative investment management industry will decline, without regard to the historical performance of a manager. Management fee or performance fee reductions on existing or future funds, without corresponding decreases in our cost structure even if other revenue streams increase, would adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
The failure of the funds we manage to raise capital in sufficient amounts and on satisfactory terms could result in a decrease in AUM, performance fees and/or fee revenue or could result in us being unable to achieve an increase in AUM, performance fees and/or fee revenue, and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Similarly, any modification of our existing fee arrangements or the fee structures for new funds could adversely affect our results of operations.
We continue to depend on investors in the funds we manage even after the capital-raising phase of any fund. Investors in many of the funds we manage make capital commitments to those funds that we are entitled to call from those investors at any time during prescribed periods. If investors were to fail to satisfy a significant amount of capital calls for any particular fund or funds, the operation and performance of those funds could be materially and adversely affected. Additionally, the governing documents of substantially all of the funds we manage in which there are third party investors provide that a simple majority-in-interest of a fund’s unaffiliated investors have the right to liquidate that fund for any or no reason, which would cause management fees and performance fees to terminate. We do not know whether, and under what circumstances, the investors in the funds we manage are likely to exercise such right. Furthermore, the management agreements of the funds we manage would also terminate if we were to experience a change of control without obtaining fund investor consent. We cannot be certain that consents required for the assignment of our management agreements will be obtained if such a deemed change of control occurs.
The governing agreements of certain of the funds we manage allow the investors of those funds to, among other things, (i) terminate the commitment period of the fund in the event that certain “key persons” fail to devote the requisite time to managing the fund, (ii) (depending on the fund) terminate the commitment period, dissolve the fund or remove the general partner if we, as general partner or manager, or certain “key persons” engage in certain forms of misconduct, (iii) dissolve the fund or terminate the commitment period upon the affirmative vote of a specified percentage of limited partner interests entitled to vote, or (iv) dissolve the fund or terminate the commitment period upon a change of control. In addition to having a significant negative impact on our revenue, net income and cash flow, the occurrence of such an event with respect to any of the funds we manage would likely result in significant reputational damage to us.
Investors in some of the funds we manage may also at times redeem their investments on an annual, semiannual or quarterly basis following the expiration of a specified period of time when capital may not be redeemed (typically between one and five years). In a declining market, the pace of redemptions and consequent reduction in our AUM could accelerate. The decrease in revenues that would result from significant redemptions in these funds could have a material adverse effect on our businesses, revenues, net inc